What it is necessary to know about house ventilation?
Hello, our dear readers! We are again glad you to welcome in our heading of "The electrician for beginners". Today we will have the last publication devoted to answers to questions of our readers. And the conversation at us will go about ventilation. Yes, yes, all of you correctly read, and from our party the typo was not made. Perhaps, our today's article will be beaten out from the general course of the story about the electrician, maybe, it will seem to much inappropriate in this heading ("The electrician for beginners"), but not to satisfy the request of our readers and we could not but take up the matter.
Of course, it was possible to answer this request and individually only to those readers who asked to tell about it. But we considered that the story about this equipment will be interesting to much, at least once in life you should face this equipment and to try to connect it. Besides, all know that ventilation of our rooms is very important, and it would be wrong to neglect it as the pure air is the integral element of our comfort and the cosiness.
Before beginning the story, there is a wish to tell the following. Everything that we will try to inform you today of, is only the small part of what comprises the matter. All schemes which we tried to provide you can be modified depending on what giving tension has your equipment.
As all of you know, presence and life activity of the person in premises are the direct source of air pollution. At our breath are emitted steam and the carbon dioxide gas. Well, and if we use the shower then in our housing there is the increase in moisture. In kitchen and when using of the toilet extremely undesirable smells can appear. Electric heating has rather annoying tendency to cause the increased dryness of air.
All these, apparently, harmless phenomena can cause not really pleasant effects: unpleasant smells, damage of walls (which you repaired not so long ago), moisture condensation and emergence of various living creatures, in addition to your pets.
Certainly, rooms can be aired, opening windows. But, you see, it will be insufficiently, in particular in the winter when we try to avoid drafts.
There is also natural ventilation when air is removed through the vertical air duct under the influence of natural draft. But this principle of intake of fresh air to rooms we do not manage and considerably depends on those climatic conditions which occur outside the window at present. And all this causes the need for artificial ventilation.
The principle of mechanical ventilation consists in creating intake of fresh air to the main rooms of your housing.
Intake of air has to come from above, most often from the upper of windows. Then indoors there is the air circulation: air passes under doors of rooms in which ventilation is made, and is involved by the mechanical fan. The located highly, this fan removes the polluted air outside, through the air duct existing or specially created by you (the opening in the wall).
There are two types of artificial ventilation:
Pointed mechanical ventilation (or if to speak briefly, TMV)
TMV is provided with installation in each your room of the device of ventilation. They, as a rule, function independently, and it allows to use them only when the room is used. To make their application the most practical, it is possible to turn on the fan at the same time, as lighting, and is even better to use the fan together with the timing circuit.
To receive the fan of sufficient productivity, its power has to answer type of the room which is aired. It is possible to count all this rather simply: productivity = room volume * number of changes air/hour. Productivity of the fan is measured in m3/h, room volume - in m3.
Below we tried to give you the table of changes of air in the hour for some rooms.
At the conclusion of air use usually turbine fan. Well, and in other situations, use classical screw fans. Further we tried to give types of the sucking-away fans which you can use.
The following type of ventilation of rooms is the dispersed system of mechanical ventilation (DSMV).
This type of ventilation turns on the sucking-away fans (you watch the upper drawing) and the devices for air flow installed usually in dry rooms of your housing. The sucking-away fans (or exhaust) usually put in the bathroom, the toilet and kitchen. Usually they are placed in the corner of the wall or the window if it is available.
These fans work constantly. Some fans of this type allow to regulate humidity indoors where they are. That is they change the volume of the extended air according to the level of relative air humidity.
One more type of ventilation - the controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV). Below we provided you the drawing of types of forced-air and exhaust systems of controlled mechanical ventilation.
As you already, probably, understood according to our drawing, is subdivided by Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region into two look: systems with simple air flow (one-line) and two-line forced-air and exhaust systems with recuperation of heat. For Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region with simple air flow the principle of input of air remains to the same, that is through the main rooms of your housing. The conclusion is made also through various utility rooms, but as you understand, at the same time and continuously.
It is necessary for the correct functioning of system that the volume of the inhausted air was approximately equal to the volume of the deleted air. The KVM some systems provide connection to their air duct in kitchen of the kitchen extract which does not have the motor and equipped only with the filter for fat. The switch on your kitchen extract allows to manage the speed of removal of the polluted air.
The KVM forced-air and exhaust systems with recuperation of heat were developed in due time to limit heat waste to which air change conducts. Warmly polluted air which is sucked away from wet rooms it is used for heating of the fresh air which is taken away outside. Economy on heating is very considerable here, approximately from 70% to 90%. But at the same time these systems differ in higher cost. And it is much more difficult to establish them. But here It should be noted that this ventilation system, at all the high cost, has, perhaps, the most important advantage, in comparison with other types of ventilation: it keeps the cool indoor air in the summer.
There are also KVM compact systems with the simple flow of air which were specially developed for installation in the apartment on the course of your repair. They borrow much less the place, and they can be established in hinged ceilings. Here air is removed outside through the opening in the wall of your apartment.
KVM forced-air and exhaust installation
This system is most often applied at construction of the private inhabited sector.
Electric connection of KVM from you will require availability of the following devices:
- OUZO on 30 mA like EXPERT.
- AV on 10-16A.
Use of the safety lock with the fusible insert is not recommended to be used any more. Rated current intensity for operation of AV can be increased in certain cases to 20 A. But here it is always necessary to consider one moment. At the choice of AV at first attentively it is necessary to study technical characteristics of KVM. As a rule, the KVM systems have two operating speeds. From this it follows that it is necessary to install the switch that you could choose this or that speed.
It is rather simple to make connection of the switch. The phase wire has to be interrupted in the place, convenient for you, and is supplied with the switch allowing to give the power supply on one of two wires that you could receive that speed which, in your opinion, will be appropriate at present. The KVM some systems have the humidity regulator, that is they automatically adapt suction speed depending on the level of humidity of the inhausted air.
To avoid accumulation of the moisture caused by condensate it is necessary to watch that pipes of your ventilation had the small bias everywhere and that there were no various turns in the form of the letter U. Also we do not forget to establish intaking openings for air (if intaking openings are made of metal, we do not forget them to ground).
The working scheme of this type of ventilation can be collected also on the basis of time regulator, on the basis of programmable hours, sensors and so on. But at the same time, respectively, the scheme of connection which we tried to cite to you as an example in the upper drawing will change.
In the apartment it is possible to be limited to pointed ventilation by means of exhaust devices which usually are installed in kitchen, in the bathroom or in the toilet. The simplest connection is in giving the power supply to the exhaust fan as the lighting point at the simplest inclusion.
But the problem of such extract consists that we occasionally with you not always remember that this type of ventilation should be switched on and off. Here it is possible to apply the following decision - to use the extract with endurance of time.
For this purpose the fan is connected to light switch, and your device continues to work some time after light switching off. As a result the extract receives the power supply, on the one hand, from the phase and zero wire (and we do not forget about grounding), and on the other hand, from the wire going from the switch managing lighting of the room where this extract is established (the scheme of connection of this extract with the timing circuit is represented on the right side).
The same as you already understood, looking at this drawing, some exhaust devices are equipped with the mechanism of the infrared sensor (the drawing on the left side) which puts the fan under tension (or, otherwise, gives the power supply) as soon as somebody enters the room. The power supply of such devices is, as a rule, carried out directly from your distribution board. If ventilation of your dwelling is made by means of several extracts, the power supply to them has to go via the same protection device (OUZO).Top