Rules of use of lighting installations
The correct organization of operation of lighting installation and conscientious daily care of it provide maintaining its working capacity and the sootyovetstviye to the existing rules and norms. When developing the project of lighting installation the solution of the questions connected with the obyosluzhivaniye of lamps and access to elements of elekyotrichesky network is provided.
With the height of suspension of lamps more than 4,5 m (extreme height for service from the streyomyanka) for access to elements of the lighting ustanovyoka use of the number of ways is possible. For example, service from the bridge mounting, repair and tekhyonologichesky cranes or frame cranes equipped with the special protected platforms.
At the znachiyotelny number of lamps and placement of their ryayodama the device of special svetotekhyonichesky bridges which are located above cranes is reasonable and allow to conduct works on service of the elektrooboyorudovaniye irrespective of the operating mode of cranes and in lyuyoby time of day.
At group placement of svetilyyonik and for service of single lamps moyozht to be provided the device of the protected svetoyotekhnichesky platforms or installation of special brackets with back arches.
In the presence of the technical etayozh the organization of service of lamps from it is possible, and the opuyoskaniye of lamps down for their service from the floor is in certain cases provided. Service of sveyotilnik by means of mobile telescopic vyyoshka and sliding ladders of the different design finds also broad application.
However. kind of well lighting installation was designed and mounted, it can quickly become useless if there is no regular care of it and its operation will be conducted at low technological level.
Irrespective of type of the applied light sources, for any lighting installation there are general treyobovaniye to operational personnel and to the operation organizayotion. These requirements can be sformuliroyovat as follows.
The basic rule of operation comes down to regulyaryony observation, timely repair and the ustraneyoniya of the found malfunctions in work of all elements of lighting installation. As it is possible to find neisyopravnost of separate elements of installation in the bolshinyostvo of cases only on the mode of burning of lamps, it is necessary to keep systematically the magazine of operation in which it should be noted data on the operating mode of lighting installation (time of burning of lamps, the change of lamps, time of cleaning of lamps given about measurement of the izoyolyation of network, replacement of the failed elements of sveyotilnik and their repair, etc.).
Tension size in the power line and its deviation from nomiyonalny value therefore it is necessary to watch the podyoderzhaniye of constancy of tension in network exerts strong impact on work of lamps, to reveal and remove the causes of sharp fluctuations of tension. The actual service life of lamps very often depends on accurate control of the mode of tension of the power line.
In use lighting installation there is the decrease in initial level of the osveshchenyonost in workplaces caused by gradual reduction of the luminous flux of lamps owing to their stareyoniya and also as a result of pollution of lamps, walls and ceilings of the room.
Dust and soot, being besieged on catopters of lamps, covering with the lamina diffusers and flasks of lamps, cause doyopolnitelny absorption of the luminous flux, создаваемого the light source and by that reduce коэффициент useful effect of the lamp. The gradual zayogryazneniye of walls and ceilings reduces their reflectivity, at the same time absorption of the svetoyovy flow by them increases that leads also to decrease in the osveshchenyonost of jobs.
In this regard the good shape of lighting installation is caused by timely and careful cleaning of elements of the lighting elekyotrooborudovaniye of all types of pollution, regular walls painting and ceilings of rooms and carrying out scheduled preventive surveys and the current remonyot of electric equipment.
Along with the listed factors, the ekspluatatsionyony personnel should pay attention to the nedopuyostimost when replacing of the fused lamps of installation of lamps of smaller power, than it is provided by the project. It is also impossible to allow application of lamps without svetilyyonik, removal from lamps of diffusers and the shielding grids as it leads to deterioration in the kacheyostvo of lighting installation because of increase in slepyayoshchy action of lighting instruments.
Svoyevreyomenny cleaning of light apertures natural the osveshcheyoniya and holding actions for economy of the expense of the electric power on the lighting purposes is assigned to operational personnel. Very often cases of the wrong understanding of the last treyobovaniye therefore with целыо economy switch-off the part of lamps take place or reduce the power of ustanovyolenny lamps in them. Such actions bring to the ukhudsheyoniya of conditions of lighting, lead to decrease in the proizvodiyotelnost of work, increase in traumatism and therefore are inadmissible.
Check of levels of illumination in workplaces can be carried out by means of the device for the izmeyoreniye of illumination called by the light meter. Naiboyoly the figurative Yu-16 light meter is convenient. This priyobor consists of the light detector, the selenic fotoelemenyot, and the galvanometer with the arrow. The instrument scale of the graduiyorovan in terms of illumination — luxury. At the izmereyoniya of illumination it is necessary to watch the size of the nayopryazheniye of the power line.
At voltage deviation from rated more than for ±5% of measurement it is impossible to proizyovodit as it conducts to big pogreshnoyostyam. It is also necessary to mean that the light meter is calibrated for measurement of illumination from nakaliyovaniye lamps. At measurement of illumination from LD fluorescent lamps it is necessary to enter correction коэффициент 0,9, and in case of lamps like LB — the correction factor 1,1.
Measurement of illumination needs to be performed at least 1 time a month in the certain points located on different sites of workshop. First of all measurements are performed on those sites, the exact work connected with big zritelyyony tension gdevypolnyatsya. Results of measurement of illumination are registered operation of the lighting ustayonovka.
When developing the project of lighting usually the stock coefficient considering decrease in illumination in use of the ustayonovka (aging of lamps, pollution of lamps and poyoverkhnost of rooms, etc.) is entered into calculations. This coefficient различен for glow lamps and fluorescent lamps and also depends on character of the environment of the room (for glow lamps it is accepted from 1,3 to 1,7, for fluorescent lamps from 1,5 to 2,0).
At control of the osveyoshchennost at the beginning of operation of installation or in the protsesyosa of its operation after replacement of lamps on new and cleanings of lamps results of measurement of illumination of the dolzhyona to be is higher normalized by 1,3 — 2,0 times (in the zavisiyomost from the accepted stock coefficient for this installation).
For the organization of the correct operation of osvetiyotelny installation the operational personnel have to have necessary technical documentation of installation. After the end of installation and setup works the mounting organization hands over the executed osveyotitelny installation to operational personnel. At the same time executive drawings which otyorazhat the actual performance of the lighting ustanovyoka are formed. These drawings have to contain data on magistyoralny and group network of each room, types of the installed lamps and capacities of lamps, the illumination of certain rooms, danyony about types of group and distribution boards, toyoka of fusible inserts and rated currents of releasers of automatic machines, etc.
By transfer to operation of installation protocols on measurement of the soyoprotivleniye of isolation of cables and wires, acts for skryyoty works, measurements of the actual osveshchennost of pomeyoshcheniye and separate jobs, etc. have to be made.
In use lighting installation at all changes made to the operating ustanovyoka the corresponding korrektirovyok in executive drawings have to be made. It is necessary to sleyodit strictly behind that technical documentation was supported in the perfect order all the time and reflected the fakyotichesky condition of installation.
The correct rational form of the organization of operation of the lighting ustanovyoka is of great importance. Several such osnovyony forms which choice has to be solved specifically at each enterprise depending on local usloyoviya can be recommended.
The most common form of operation of lighting installation is service of sveyotilnik on site of installation by the operational persoyonal. At such form of operation calculations pokazyyovat that on each 50 — 120 kW of the established moshchnoyosta of light sources it is necessary to have one mounter of the 3rd discharge. The lower limit of power belongs to installations with gas discharge tubes, and upper — to installations with glow lamps at service of lamps from step-ladders or ladders.
On large enterprises it is rational to organizovyyovat specialized crews for service of lighting installations with creation at big tseyokha of lighting workshops. Such workshops can be created separately or as a part of elektroremontyony workshops. In the workshop there has to be the stock of the ochishchenyony and checked lamps.
Lamps, podleyozhashchy to cleaning and prevention and also failed, personnel are removed from the installation site and nayopravlyatsya in the workshop, and instead of them other of the available stock immediately are established. At such system of service znayochitelny economy of means as instead of processing of each lamp manually on site of installation it predyostavlyatsya possible in the workshop to have the spetsializiyorovanny productive equipment for cleaning of lamps, stands for production of their tests, etc. can be received. All this reduces specific expenses on obsluzhivayony each lamp.
Also the organization of specialized lighting workshops for service of the number of the enterprises is possible. In such workshops there can be the dostignuyot the high industrialization of processing of lamps and by that cost value of these works is reduced. Lighting workshops can service the enterprises on a contract basis, and in some cases such system of the organization of operation can be ekonomicheyosk more favorable in comparison, for example, with the system of cleaning of lamps on site of their installation.
With growth of volume of lighting installations when in workshops several thousands of lamps are installed and when begins the increasing value to get use of gas-discharge light sources, voproyosa of cost of operation of lighting installations stayonovitsya by extremely important. One of the main stayoty these expenses is the cost of replacement of peregoyorevshy lamps. At the large number of the established lamps there is the problem of their replacement.
There are three spoyosob of replacement of lamps: individual, group and kombiyonirovanny. In the first case each fused lamp is replaced with new. At group replacement it predpoyolagatsya that all lamps operated in one pomeyoshcheniye or its part at the same time are established and after burning during certain time zameyonyatsya by new. The third way is the combination peryovy and the second.
It is known that glow lamps have the average term of service of 1 Ltd company of the h, and, according to the standard, light each lamp of sequins after 750 h burning has to be not less than 85% of its initial size. As in the course of burning the luminous flux of glow lamps decreases at the small size, there is no sense to prekrayoshchat use of lamps before their burn-out.
If to uchiyotyvat the stock coefficients accepted at design of lighting installations, possible decrease in the luminous flux of glow lamps because of their aging at burn-out of 15 — 20% of all lamps established in this room, they need to be replaced new. Thus, in installations with glow lamps application of the combined method of replacement of lamps is possible.
Absolutely other picture turns out in ustanovyoka with fluorescent lamps. According to the standard on these lamps their average term of service has to составлять 5 000 h, and the luminous flux after it the vremeyona of burning can have the size about 60% of its sredyony rated value. The part of lamps fails, without having burned down up to 5 000 h, and other part of lamps can burn and bigger time, but at the same time considerably loses the luminous flux. At bigger loss of the luminous flux further operation of such lamps becomes economically unprofitable. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish effekyotivny service life of the lamp when its use is still economic, and full service life before its burn-out.
Effective service life of the lamp will be less than the possible actual duration of its burning. If to operate installation with lyumineyostsentny lamps and to make replacement of lamps only after their failure, then it can give to rezyoky decrease in the illumination below normalized that is inadmissible. Therefore, replacement of lamps has to proyoizvoditsya after effective service life of lamps in spite of the fact that practically they still can burn. It is necessary to emphasize that for installation with lyumiyonestsentny and other gas discharge tubes pokayozatel of need of replacement of lamps is not their burn-out, but working off of effective service life by them.
Thus, if in case of glow lamps at the system of the individual or combined replacement of lamps need of their replacement is defined by the fact of burn-out of lamps, then in installations this problem is solved with gas discharge tubes more difficult. In this case it is possible to keep individual account of time of burning of each lamp, but it is practically difficult to do it. In this regard there was also the idea of group replacement of lamps when replacement of all lamps established in the room or its part is at the same time made.
Advantages of such way of replacement of lamps can be considered sharp reduction of costs of service of installation and reduction of time necessary by its carrying out, increase in the average level of illumination in workplaces and decrease in the unproductive rasyokhod of the electric power caused by reduction of the ekoyonomichnost of lamps in process of their aging. Replacement of lamps can be made at any time, without disturbing tekhyonologichesky working hours of the enterprise, and it can be combined with the moment of cleaning of lamps.
As the nedoyostatok of this way of replacement of lamps can be considered the bolyyoshy expense of lamps. However after removal of lamps it is necessary to make their check at the size of the luminous flux, and those lamps which still have rather big luminous flux, it is possible to put on the further ekspluayotation to auxiliary rooms. It a little cuts the increased consumption of lamps.
The advantage of application of the group way of replacement of lamps in each case is defined by ekonoyomichesky calculation in which consider the accepted stock coefficients, the cost of individual and group replacement of lamps, dependence of decrease in the luminous flux of lamps on time of burning and some other factors. Effective service life of lamps also opreyodelyatsya on the basis of technical and economic calculations, and for domestic fluorescent lamps it lies in the range of 3 500 — 5 Ltd companies of h.Top