Main tools of the electrician

Not to do the house electrician in its work without the small set of standard tools and several simple self-made devices.

Инструменты

The following tools are necessary for work with electricity: set of screw-drivers, combination pliers, wire stripper and nippers.

So, assembly and dismantling of threaded connections in the body of devices and in electrical links will require sets of screw-drivers and wrenches and also combination pliers. For cutting of the thread taps, dies, drills on metal, the tap wrench will be necessary for taps, the ram holder.

During the cleaning of isolation and connection of wires the mounting knife, side nippers (side cutting pliers), the electric soldering iron are necessary. When cutting, sawing metal and plastic not to do without hacksaw, files, the small vice. For punching within the walls of grooves and slots under wires, switches, sockets it is necessary to have the mounting chisel, the jumper, hammers, drills with the hard-alloy cutting edges. And, of course, it is necessary to the house electrician very difficult without electric drill and the electrogrinder.

In set it is useful to have devices for welding of aluminum veins of electric wires, the cutting torch for cutting of sheet material (the micarta, textolite, aluminum) and also devices for control of the electric circuit and availability of tension in it (the ohmmeter, tension indicator, the control lamp).

Safety and quality of work are in direct dependence on the condition of the tool. Therefore the last has to be operational, easy to use, and the cutting tool – sharp and correctly ground. Without considering "normal" tools and devices here: screw-drivers, hammers, soldering irons, etc, – we will tell a little about simple devices for definition of availability of tension in the network circuit and for check of integrity of network.

Indexes and indicators of tension

Схема отвертки-индикатора

Figure 1. Scheme of the screw-driver indicator.

These devices are used by electricians to definition of availability of tension in the network circuit, on current-carrying parts of devices and devices, to finding of the phase wire on contacts of adjusting elements of the electrical wiring. The principle of operation of the indicator is based on the luminescence of the neon lamp at course via it the capacity current.

For restriction of current of the neon lamp and prevention of transition of the glow discharge to breakdown consistently with the lamp turn on the resistor with a resistance about 1 megohm. Threshold of ignition of the lamp not less than 90 Century. During the work with the indicator for reduction it in action needs to touch by the hand of its contact head. The current proceeding at the same time through the body of the person at the mains voltage of 220 V will make mA shares, without constituting any danger to the person.

The domestic industry releases several types of indicators. In fig. 1 the INO-70 indicator screw-driver is shown. The lack of similar indicators is that with their help it is impossible to distinguish the neutral from the phase wire having break or to define belonging of wires to one or different phases. It can be done by means of the control lamp – the simplest device for check of the condition of electric circuits and adjusting elements energized.

For protection of the flask of its lamp it is necessary to place in the protective cap which can be made of the plastic glass surely. In day of the glass the opening under the size of the threaded site of the body of the boss is cut out (for example, the centrobor). The boss is fixed in the glass.

It is desirable to take the lamp to low power, for example from the refrigerator or the sewing machine. The ends of cords have to be in insulating tubes with flanges on the ends and the plugs with a diameter of 2-3 mm acting from them and about 20 mm long. The insulating tubes 12-15 mm long excluding the possibility of contact with the hand of the bared plugs are densely put on plugs, and the outside diameter of tubes should not be more than 4 mm that plugs could enter slots of sockets.

Ohmmeter sampler

Звуковой пробник-омметр с мега режимом и режимом малых сопротивлений

Sound sampler ohmmeter with mega mode and the mode of small resistance.

This idle time and the convenient self-made device is used for check of integrity of the deenergized electric circuit, finding of the place of fault and approximate measurement resistance of elements of the chain. The device consists of consistently connected electromagnetic pointer head, the galvanic cell, the resistor – the current limit through the head and cords with probes. It is desirable to pick up the electromagnetic head with current of the full deviation of the arrow within 100 mk – 1 mA. Heads from any voltmeter, the milliammeter or the ampermeter suit for this purpose. Also the heads of devices measuring record level in tape recorders are convenient.

From the head from the voltmeter it is necessary выпаять the additional resistor, having replaced it with the piece of the conductor, and in the head from the milliammeter and the ampermeter to bite off the shunt. As the battery one element of 1,5 Century undertakes.

Resistance of resistors for restriction of current is calculated as the battery tension relation to current of the full deviation of the arrow of the device. For example, for the element in 1,5 B resistor has to have resistance of 1,5 kOhm. After assembly of the ohmmeter the resistor can be picked up more precisely by parallel connection to the calculated resistor with the resistance, in several tens of times big (if the arrow does not reach the end of the scale), or connection of consistently second resistance, in several tens of times smaller (if the arrow reads off scale).

For the body of the ohmmeter it is possible to use the box of plastic suitable by the sizes. It is convenient to make probes of collet pencils or the body of ball pens.

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