How it is correct to make connection of wires?


Principle of connection of wires

The subject of connection of wires is submitted quite interesting to review. For those who only study elements electricians this information will be very useful and necessary. It is not necessary to be the professional electrician to understand that all junctions of wires – the zone of serious danger. As a rule, 90% of all malfunctions and accidents arise in contacts and cable twists.

Провода

Connection of wires can be several types: twist, by means of terminal strips, by means of terminal clamps, etc.

 

As you understand, types of connections of wires exists quite a lot, but only those ways of connections which ordinary consumers can make in house conditions will be considered.

It is necessary to begin with general information.

During the laying or repair of the electrical wiring quite often it is necessary to do various branches and merging of wires. During this operation it is always necessary to aim at receiving high-quality connection and good contact. It is really very important because in places of the bad contact because of increase in resistance conducting veins heat up, and it can lead to ignition of isolation of your conductor and in some cases – to serious effects (what we it was already told above about).

There are several ways of connections of wires and cables:

Варианты скрутки проводов

Options of twist of wires.

  1. Twist.
  2. Terminal strips with screw terminals.
  3. Terminal clamps.
  4. Electric welding.
  5. By method of the contact warming up.
  6. Soldering in twist or in the sleeve.
  7. Molding in sleeves.

Some of these methods of connections demand the special equipment, in house conditions for independent connection of wires terminal clamps, terminal strips with screw terminals and as a last resort twist without soldering best of all approach.

All ways of connection of conductors which will be considered below, almost equivalent. Each of them has pluses and minuses. If all your connections are made competently and honestly, then further with them problems should not be, in whatever way you executed this connection.
Further the most widespread methods of connections of wires which are applicable in house conditions will be considered.

Twist of wires

Виды соединения проводов

Types of connection of wires.

This method of connection of wires is applied only in the absence of the special tool and devices today. In most cases wires just twist and roll up the insulating tape. In certain cases such connection is not reliable, but under certain conditions such connections show surprising reliability. For this purpose it is necessary to remember couple of rules: it is necessary to twist copper with copper, aluminum with aluminum and to provide rather small current for the power supply of your chandelier.

At the same time all length of your twist has to be about 3-4 cm. As you already understood from the aforesaid, it is impossible to twist among themselves aluminum and copper wires at all. In places of such connections there is always the electrolysis process (with participation of the water which is contained in air) at which these metals collapse. Generally it belongs to aluminum. In this process there is always one rule: the more current, the quicker occurs process.

The type of twist depends generally on type and functional purpose of connection, diameter and material of the twisted wires. Below, to help you to understand this question, the table of types of twists is provided.

The modern twist of wires is made without use of flat-nose pliers. Apply special connecting polymeric caps with the metal spiral to its creation inside. In the market there are both import, and domestic caps.

Схема соединения проводов колпачком

Scheme of connection of wires cap.

The cap (twist) is the simplest way of the TPZh connection of small section. It is applied when you need to connect several ends of the wire. Connection is carried out very simply, the equal ends of wires smooth out at the length about 15 mm, insert in the cap against the stop and rotate the body by means of wings on the body until receiving strong connection. You can check the received connection by means of normal instrumentations as above caps there is the control deepening for the device probe.

Connection can be screwed and to unscrew in some cases with the identical length of the ends of wires. But here it is always necessary to remember that spring caps are expected the certain number of wires (this information has to be on the body of the cap or on packaging in which caps were) therefore when performing this type of works it is always necessary to have the set of the different sizes.

At the choice of the size of the cap necessary to you it is possible to be guided by the color gamma. Just upon purchase of caps attentively study their range provided in shop. Pay attention to color and to technical characteristics which have to be written on the fact-finding leaf and if it is necessary to you, remember all this information. In most cases it is possible to manage purchase of caps of red color – with their help it is possible to twist wires from 0,5 to 12,5 mm ².

The following type of connection of wires which needs to be considered is the connection by means of terminal strips.

Connection by terminal strips

Terminal strips are rather convenient way of connection of wires, especially when at you there is a lot of them.

Схема соединения проводов клеммными колодкам

Scheme of connection of wires terminal to blocks.

The block represents the dielectric body with the screw contacts which are inside.

At terminal strips as you already managed to see, there are a lot of slots isolated from each other (usually two screws are the share of one terminal block). Here all connections become rather simply. It is only necessary to smooth out the ends of veins, to insert them into the corresponding opening (towards each other) and to tighten fixing screws. But be not overzealous not to cut off these veins. Terminal strips are expected work in the alternating current main with the rated voltage of 220-230 V and with a frequency of 50 Hz.

Blocks have openings in the middle of the body. Through these openings you can fix terminal blocks on any surface. If you do not need completely all block, you, being guided by openings, can cut off excess terminal blocks.

Also you can use this type of terminal blocks and as deadlock. That is you get all veins which you should connect on the one hand and make cleaning of veins so that they could be tightened not one, but two screws. It is better to make it so that the ends of the tightened veins did not stick out from the opposite side of the terminal block. Then take the insulating tape and try to insulate the end that further most not to receive electric shock.

Though on sale there are deadlock terminal blocks, it is not always favorable to buy them. It is unlikely you will begin to get the electrotechnical product of the big sizes.

And one more moment which should be considered during the work with terminal strips. If you try to connect the cable, then always for the ends of the multivein try to mold tips as when tightening the high probability of the fact that you can cut off the large number of separate veins and by that to reduce its section exists screws of this wire, and it can lead further to unpredictable effects. Here one council is appropriate: upon purchase of terminal strips always attentively examine them and try to buy such where inside there are pressing plates.

Connection by terminal clamps

The following type of connection of wires which should be considered in more detail is the connection by terminal clamps (in other words, use of the terminal blocks WAGO, they are called still by ploskopruzhinny terminal clamps).

Now wires even more often connect terminal spring clips. In this case you should not twist or accustom to drinking anything, it is only enough to smooth out the ends of veins approximately on 12 mm and to insert into clip openings.

Схема соединения проводов контактными зажимами

Scheme of connection of wires terminal clamps: and – connection of the aluminum single-core wire with the pin exit: 1 – nut; 2 – cutting spring washer; 3 – shaped washer; 4 – steel washer; 5 – the pin conclusion; – connection of the strong wire the flat terminal screw terminal; in – connection of the vein with the conclusion tightening тычкового type; – the terminal spring clamp.

This design will look here is how.

These plugs are filled with special contact paste which at connection of the aluminum conductor removes from it the oxide film and prevents repeated oxidation. That is when mounting you can safely connect both the copper conductor, and aluminum to one terminal block.

Many specialists abuse this type of connection for one reason or another. But after all it is rather reliable and it has the number of advantages:

  1. Conductors are not damaged.
  2. Reliable protection against accidental touch to current carrying connections.
  3. For each conductor the certain terminal place is provided.
  4. Connection together both copper, and aluminum conductors.
  5. The possibility of measurement of electric parameters of the chain without isolation violation is provided.
  6. Safety and order when using these terminal blocks in wiring boxes.
  7. KZ and warming up in the connection point is completely excluded.
  8. Clips of this series are the optimal variant for connection of wires at current to 25 A.
  9. Instant mounting of conductors.

There are terminal blocks of this type and for cables.

There are still ways of connections, less popular which you will be able to carry out.

Схема устройства контактного зажима

Scheme of the device of the terminal clamp: 1 - screw; 2 - spring washer; 3 - washer or basis of the terminal clamp; 4 - current carrying vein; 5 - the emphasis limiting spreading of the aluminum conductor.

Screw terminals are contacts in which wire fastens by means of screws. The clip is mounted on the spreading surface by means of screws. In some cases screw terminals can look as follows:

Cable clips – these devices help to connect veins of wires, without cutting TPZh. Are used for the branch of wires from the main highway.

This type of the clip is a little outdated. Now try to use a few other design which should not be sorted and when which using it is not necessary to smooth out the site of the highway from isolation as they are self-puncturing. That is when twisting the nut which is from above the clip special teeth puncture isolation of the conductor and by that provide reliable contact. You can insert other conductor into other opening and by that to make the branch.

Panel board terminal blocks or tires this way of connection is used when you need to connect several conductors. For example, at connection of suitable zero wires to the general.

Soldering – connection of wires by means of the soldering iron and special solders.

Whatever you chose connection, try to do it thoroughly and without haste further not to blame themselves if there is unexpected.

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