Principle of operation of the infrared heater: types and characteristics


As the infraskrasny heater works

Heaters of infrared radiation differ from devices of convection heating in the fact that they will transform electrical energy in thermal by means of specially built-in heating component. Unlike convective heat exchange which heats first of all air thermal beams of radiant heat exchange of the infrared heater are directly directed to objects and objects of the room.

Инфракрасный обогреватель

The infrared heater, in difference from others, extends warmly directly to objects and objects of the room.

Principle of operation of the heater of infrared radiation

About 92% of heat energy of infrared radiation go for heating of the objects which are in area of radiation of the heater. The indoor air has only 8% influence of thermal beams as infrared radiation poorly collects in air. The heating element фламентин the infrared heater directly gets on the surface of walls, the floor and room objects, heating them. Thus, primary heat of objects which, in turn extend collected heat in air is created. The principle of operation of the infrared heater is carried out at the expense of three ranges of electromagnetic waves.

The first type is short-wave, with the range from 0,77 to 15 microns. Mediumwave electromagnetic waves are characterized by the interval from 15 to 100 microns. The third type of waves - long-wave, with the range from 100 to 340 microns. Thanks to set of coincidence of functioning of short-wave waves to light and long-wave range with radio waves, the infrared radiation of the heater can be compared to the mechanism of sunshine which work with rectilinear projection, refracting and being reflected. The effect of radio waves gives ability of penetration through lightproof materials of the surface and home decoration. Due to functional dynamics of permeability of long-wave range on objects, such type of waves it is not capable to heat air which has transparent characteristics.

In other words, work of infrared radiation of waves of long-wave range can be compared to heating by the Sun of Earth.

Types and characteristics of infrared heaters

Потолочный инфракрасный обогреватель

Ceiling infrared heater.

There are three types of infrared heaters having differences depending on power source type. The first of such infrared devices are the gas units based on the principle of firing and interaction of air with propane by means of special piezo - the component. Infrared heaters on the gas basis are intended for heating of big rooms, such as sports grounds, showrooms and other large-scale rooms. The principle of operation of gas infrared heaters is based on the long waves capable to warm up to 25 m ³.

The diesel type of the infrared heater has the principle of work of the warming up of electrodes by means of power supply. Thus, the warmed torches containing these electrodes turn on the pump with fuel and start the fan which operation allows forming of special thermal mix which then arrives to the torch and lights up at contact with air. This process of heating then makes infrared rays.

The third type is electric IO which principle of work is based on the warming up of the socle nitevy coil reaching about 900 °C and making infrared rays which by means of the reflector warm the certain zone. In the cylindrical basis of gas IO the gas cylinder connecting to the ignition torch by means of the special hose in the heater rack is located. The coefficient of potential action makes about 85%. The price of the gas infrared heater - about 16000 rubles.

Схема подключения инфракрасного обогревателя к терморегулятору

Scheme of connection of the infrared heater to the temperature regulator.

The structure of the diesel heater of infrared radiation consists in the tank arrangement with fuel or kerosene behind the frame on the wheel basis. The tank is connected by the hose to the radiator which resembles the horizontal searchlight superficially. The approximate price of diesel IO is about 18000 rubles. Depending on material type, electric heaters of infrared radiation can be with the quartz, metal or ceramic cover in which heating thread is placed. The cover is located quartz inside - the glass vacuum tube. Such heaters are very attractive at the price, no more than 3000 rubles, thanks to the simple structure.

Shortcomings of the electric heater with the quartz cover consist in high consumption of electricity and the small expiration date, about two years. Radiation shines in reddish color. Generally such heaters are ideal for short heating of big rooms. The ceramic cover of incandescence is considerably effective in electric power consumption unlike the quartz heater. Such type of heaters is often used in saunas or the medical purposes. There is no red luminescence and the expiration date makes about three years. The ceramic cover heats up much more slowly, than quartz. Respectively, its price - from 9000 rubles. At last, electric heaters with the metal body are similar to the principle of work of ceramic type and cost about 11000 rubles.

IO are classified on high-temperature (more than 400 °C) and low-temperature (up to 50 °C). Wavelength of infrared radiation of high-temperature heaters is quite short, about 7,5 microns. The danger of action on skin of the person of this kind of heating is high. HF waves have rigid influence, like the solar burn. Infrared heaters of high-temperature work are used for big rooms with ceiling height not less than 3 m. In small premises use low-temperature units in which the spiral does not heat up more than on 65 °C.

Advantages of IK of heaters

Принцип работы инфракрасного обогревателя

Principle of operation of the infrared heater.

IK heaters have many advantages, unlike traditional. First, infrared heating, affecting surfaces and objects, promotes uniform distribution of heat indoors, reducing the difference between temperature of upper and lower layers of air. It allows to reach optimum general temperature, having cut expenses on heating. Secondly, work of IK of heaters does not reduce amount of oxygen and does not dry air. Respectively, they have favorable effect on the human body which will not feel fatigue and the headache from the lack of oxygen.

Thirdly, unlike traditional heaters, devices of infrared radiation warm the room in 3 or 4 times quicker. Fourthly, IK heaters are ideal for big spaces and also restaurants and cafe where doors often open that causes loss of heat and discomfort. Thanks to pointed and zone heating infrared systems directly affects heating of the people sitting at the table, making purchases in shop or the located clients on the terrace of restaurant. Such way of heating considerably raises revenue of the institution, creating comfortable stay not only inside, but also about the room.

Fifthly, thanks to specially built-in system of protection against dust and moisture, infrared heaters do not burn dust particles in air and do not create unpleasant smells. Thermal beams of infrared radiation help to struggle effectively with humidity that is ideal, for example, for support of optimum climate for plants in the winter garden or on the verandah. Sixthly, such heating is noise-free and easily is established. At last, IK heaters have long service life and are compatible to operation of other devices of ventilation of the room.

Shortcomings of IK of heaters

The system of infrared heating has several shortcomings. It is necessary to avoid direct hit of infrared radiation of short-wave action which waves have rigid influence. In small premises it is better to establish low-temperature IK heaters with the small power. Gas and diesel devices of infrared radiation have to be installed only outside of the room. Long stay under the influence of the infrared heater in the zone or the point of heating is not recommended. The prices of qualitative IK heaters are much higher than normal convectors.

Choice of infrared heaters

The choice of the infrared equipment depends on room parameters which will demand exact calculation of thermal distribution for the warmed zone. Basic purpose of heaters of infrared radiation are premises of workshops, exhibition complexes, supermarkets, the markets. In the sector of household purpose of IKO are often used in country houses, dachas, cottages or guest lodges. Gas IKO perfectly are suitable for open rooms and cottages. Usually choose heating infrared devices from 1,5 kW with the direct or indirect type of heating. At direct type of heating it is necessary to consider that the air necessary for burning arrives from the room, and then its decay products come back to air. In this regard installation of effective ventilating system is calculated.

In case of indirect heating professional installation of system of withdrawal of products of burning is necessary. In the household purposes electric IK heaters, with power up to 1,5 kW are used. Their distinctive feature from other types of infrared heaters is the material of the spiral which is generally made of quartz or carbon fabrics.

Most popular today IK heaters - ceiling. Installation happens to adherence of proportions of power and distances. For example, at the power from 700 to 800 W, devices are located at least on 0,7 m. If height of the ceiling reaches 2,5 m, then the 700 W heater can be installed in any place with observance of the installation instruction. There are options of the wall and angular arrangement of IK of heaters, the parallelism of connection of power supply is observed.

The majority of modern infrared heaters work at the principle of the optimum automatic mode. At the choice of the device it is necessary to pay attention to such characteristics as Teng's condition, the body, plates of heating, the foil and the insulator.

It is possible to choose the heater with the power stock if there are sources heat waste in the room, necessary for heating.

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