How to make the solar battery of transistors or diodes?
The quantity of scopes of the devices called by solar batteries increases every day. They find more and more broad application in the military space industries, the industry, agriculture, in life. To buy such battery at reasonable price it becomes simpler, it is interesting to make it the hands.
In this article the practical advice on production is given by the hands of the solar battery which can be used as the current source for low-power radio amateur designs.
The self-made solar battery from diodes or transistors - the device interesting not only from the point of view of practical application, but also for understanding of the principle of its work. And for its production it is better to use the semiconductor devices released 30-40 years ago.
How does the solar battery work?
The solar battery as the device transforming energy of light to electrical energy it is known already for a long time. Its work is based on the phenomenon of the inner photo-emissive effect in p-n transition. The inner photo-emissive effect - the emergence phenomenon in the semiconductor of additional carriers of current (electrons or holes) at light absorption.
Electrons and holes are separated by p-n transition so that electrons concentrate in the n-area, and holes - in the p-area, between these areas EMF results. If to connect external loading to them, then at illumination of p-n of transition in it there will be current. Energy of the sun turns into electrical energy.
EMF and current intensity in such semiconductor is defined by the following factors:
- semiconductor material (germaniye, silicon, etc.);
- surface area r-n transition;
- illumination of this transition.
The current intensity created by one element is very small, and for achievement of desirable result it is necessary to assemble modules from the large number of such elements. Such current source is not afraid of short notes as the size of current intensity, created by it, is limited to some maximum value - usually several milliampere.
The self-made solar battery from point-contact diodes or transistors
Necessary for creation of the solar battery r-n point-contact diodes have transitions also, and at transistors. At the diode 1 r-n transition, and the transistor has 2 such transitions - between base and the collector, between base and the emitter. The possibility of use of the semiconductor device in this quality is defined by 2 conditions:
- there has to be the opportunity to open r-n transition;
- the area r-n transition has to be rather big.
Self-made transistor solar battery
The second condition is usually satisfied for powerful sheet transistors. Silicon n-r-n the KT801 (a) transistor is interesting that at it it is easy to open transition. It is enough to press flat-nose pliers the cover and to accurately remove it. At the powerful germanium transistors P210-P217 (b) it is necessary to cut accurately the cover in the area of AA and to remove it.
The prepared transistors before using them as elements of the solar battery, it is necessary to check. For this purpose it is possible to use the normal multimeter. Having switched the device to the mode of measurement of current (the limit several milliampere), to include it between base and the collector or the emitter of the transistor which transition is well lit. The device has to show small current - usually milliampere shares, slightly more than 1 mA are more rare. Having switched the multimeter to the strain measurement mode (the limit of 1-3 V), we have to receive value of voltage output of the order of the several tenth shares of volt. It is desirable to sort them on groups with close values of voltage outputs.
The mixed connection of elements is applied to increase in the output current and operating voltage. In groups elements connect to close values of voltage outputs in parallel. The general output current of group is equal to the sum of currents of separate elements. Groups among themselves join consistently. Their voltage outputs develop. For transistors with structure of n-r-n the polarity of voltage output will be opposite.
It is better to develop the mounting payment from the foiled glass fiber laminate for assembly of the current source. After unsoldering of elements, it is better to place the payment in the body of the suitable sizes and to close from above the plate from organic glass. The current source from several tens transistors generates tension in several volt at the output current in several milliampere. It can be used for recharge of low-power accumulators, for the power supply of the low-power radio receiver and other low-power electronic devices.
Self-made diode solar battery
Also the solar battery on diodes can be manufactured by the hands. As the example we will describe production of batteries on the sheet silicon diodes KD202. Instead of them it is possible to use other semiconductor rectifiers: D242, D237, D226, etc.
To open r-n transition of the KD202 diode, it is necessary to do the following operations:
- Having clamped the diode in the vice for the flange, to cut off, and then to accurately straighten the anode conclusion that then it was possible to release easily the copper wire soldered to r-n to transition.
- Having put to the welded joint the knife or other sharp object, easy blows, turning the diode in the vice, to separate the protective flange.
It is approximately also possible to separate the protective flange and other diodes.
In the solar battery the prepared diodes, as well as transistors in the stated above scheme, connect is mixed. In each group elements also connect in parallel: on the one hand anodes of diodes, and among themselves connect to another - cathodes. It is possible to select elements on groups as well as transistors. The more in such current source of separate elements, the more its power.
The current source from 5 groups on 10 diodes generates tension about 2,5 In at current intensity 20-25 mA. For production of the self-made current source use of rectifying diodes of low power of the D223 type is admissible. They are convenient that at them it is easy to open for light r-n transition. For this purpose it is enough to take their some time in acetone then protective paint is easily purified from the glass body.
Do not forget that during the work with semiconductor devices, it is worth to remember that they easily fail when overheating. It is necessary to apply soft solder and the low-power soldering iron to soldering, trying not to warm up too long the place of soldering.
It is easy to notice that production and assembly of the self-made semiconductor solar battery - the task not really difficult for the person familiar with elements of designing of electronic devices. Try - at you everything will turn out!Top