We do heat-insulated floors in the house
- Power of heat-insulated floors
- Laying of the heat-insulated floor and connection
- Option 2. Heating of the floor by means of heating cables
- Heating of the floor under the tile
- Merits and demerits of the heat-insulated floor
- "Warm with water circulating heating"
- Novelty in the market of floor coverings
- Instruction for laying of the heating cable
- Working procedures on laying of the heating cable for the "heat-insulated floor" system
Now heat-insulated floors receive the increasing application for heating of premises. It and is clear: in recent years they became more available to consumers in respect of the cost, besides it is absolutely other level of comfort, despite simplicity of this system of heating, heat-insulated floors – for today the most optimum way of the main or additional (comfortable) heating of housing. On the design heat-insulated floors can be separated into 2 main groups: floors with the system of water heating and electric. It is worth making a reservation at once that the speech will go about electric heat-insulated floors here.
The principle of action of electric heat-insulated floors is based on transformation of electrical energy to thermal – in the course of work the heating element warms up the cement and sand tie (if the heating cable) or directly sexual tile (is used when using heating mats).
The main components of system of electric heat-insulated floors are: the heating element, depending on their execution it can be the heating cable or heating mats, the temperature sensing device and the temperature regulator.
Whether difficult most to make heat-insulated floors in the house? Inherently electric heat-insulated floors – no other than the buried electrical wiring in the floor connected to network ~ 220 volts through the temperature regulator and the thermal sensor. The scheme of connection does not differ in special complexity and does not demand any specific knowledge of electrical equipment. But it should be taken into account danger of the electrical wiring laid independently, it is better to use services of professionals.
Power of heat-insulated floors
Key factor at the choice and purchase of the set of the heat-insulated floor is, of course, the electric power of heat-insulated floors which in turn directly depends on the following factors:
- the areas of the warmed room;
- type of required heating of the room;
- like the room.
When calculating the area of the warmed room only its useful area (in the drawing below is marked in the green color) which is not occupied with furniture or major appliances – refrigerators, washing machines, etc. is considered. Therefore when calculating the area for the choice of power of heat-insulated floors it is necessary to decide on the furniture arrangement indoors at once.
It is necessary to consider that when using electric heat-insulated floors as the main source of heating the warmed area has to be not less than 70% of the total area of the room is the necessary condition.
In certain cases use of heat-insulated floors as the main source of heating very difficult or is not possible at all - usually, these are the rooms which are strongly "filled" furniture therefore this moment needs to be considered at the choice of the set of heat-insulated floors.
Main type of heating (power density – 150 – 180 W on square meter) - when heat-insulated electric floors serve as the basic (or the only thing) as heat source. It is clear, that the electric power of these floors has to be more, than at the electric floors intended for additional heating.
Additional (comfortable) heating (power density – 110 – 140 W on square meter). Apparently from its name, it is intended for use together with the main sources of heating – gas, electricity, etc. Well is suitable for maintenance of room temperature in apartments of multi-storey buildings with the centralized heating when the heating season did not begin yet (or already ended).
Types of rooms. All rooms of our housing have different functional features, respectively, and requirements to heating, more precisely, to power density to system (W/sq.m). It is obvious that the power density of system, say, on the loggia has to be more, than in kitchen.
Here approximate values of the power of the electric heat-insulated floor put on 1 sq.m for different rooms (comfortable heating):
- view of the room;
- power (W/sq.m);
- kitchen, living room 110 - 150;
- the glazed loggia 140 - 180;
- bathroom 140 - 150.
The given values of power density are given with some stock – in this case the system will have the necessary reserve, working for 70 – 75%.
When calculating power of heat-insulated floors it is worth taking into account and the floor of the apartment (in apartment houses). If it is the first floor, then power density when calculating follows it makes sense 15 - 20% more.
Laying of the heat-insulated floor and connection
Preparation for laying of the heat-insulated floor
First of all, it is necessary to carry out the power supply for heat-insulated floors. Better to make it separate electric group with use of the device of protective shutdown (DPS) if in the house (apartment) grounding is provided.
The ends of the feeding wires (use the copper wire with a section of 2,5 mm2) come down in the adjusting box – in it the temperature regulator for heat-insulated floors will be established then. The standard adjusting box will approach? 68 mm – "podrozetnik".
After the box with the feeding wire is recorded in the wall, from it to the floor the shtroba for the departing wires becomes, in it wires of the heating cable (heating mats) and the thermal sensor will be laid.
The Shtroba has to have the sufficient depth and width for the room in it one corrugation junctures? 20 mm, but it is better to put nevertheless at once their two, in this case for the thermal sensor with wires it will be possible to use the separate gofrotruba and in case of its fault afterwards it can be easily replaced, having kept floors whole.
Before laying of heat-insulated floors it is necessary to lay heat insulation. The important part of heat-insulated floors is intended for prevention of unnecessary heat leakage down that especially important for apartments of the first floors.
The layer of heat insulation keeps within on the surface of the concrete basis of the floor cleaned from construction debris and dust, previously processed by glue. For contact of floors with the cement and concrete tie in the layer of heat insulation it is necessary to make small cuts through any, equal distances.
Further it is necessary to fix the mounting tape on the floor. It is necessary to fix it through equal distances (30 – 50 cm), depending on the step of laying of the heating cable (h) – than the laying step is less, the distance between strips of the mounting tape has to be that, respectively, less. In the concrete floor it is the best of all to fix the tape the dowel nails.
Laying of the heat-insulated floor
First of all, we calculate the step of laying of the heat-insulated floor. This rated size is defined by the formula: h = (S · 100)/L, where S – the room space on which the heat-insulated floor will be laid, L – length of the heating cable.
Having defined the laying step, it is possible to start laying of the heat-insulated floor. The heating cable is fixed to the mounting tape by means of its unbent fixing lobes. We fix also to the sensor gofrotrub, without having forgotten to muffle its end in order to avoid solution hits inside.
In this case laying of the heat-insulated floor is considered by the single-conductor heating cable (see rice). When using the twin-core heating cable process of laying becomes simpler since there is no need to return its second end in the box. However it should be noted that the cost of such cable is always higher, than single-core, irrespective of the producer.
Everything, laying is complete, we measure the ohmic resistance of the heating cable, it has to be equal to the % specified on the coupling-5...+10. After drawing the cement and sand tie and after its full hardening (28 days) the measurement is repeated.
Connection of the heat-insulated floor
After laying of the heat-insulated floor and measurement of resistance of the heating cable it needs to be connected, here difficulties should not arise. Connection becomes in earlier prepared adjusting box – on the temperature regulator.
Marking for switching on the temperature regulator: L – the phase wire, N – the zero wire, RE – the grounding wire.
The device of the heat-insulated floor is carried out by means of special heating electrocables. As a rule, floor heating is arranged under stone or tiled floors in bathrooms, toilets and in living rooms. At installation of the warmed floor need for other types of heating of the room disappears.
In the presence in the house of the heated floor warm air is distributed from below up all volume of the room almost ideally. Average temperature of the room can decrease by 2-3 °C, without causing at the same time discomfort in the people living in it. Practically it means economy in expenses on heating from 10% to 15%.
Electric heating of the floor is carried out by special wires of high resistance with the thermal sensor and the system of thermal control. Electric elements of system of heating are mounted on the surface of the concrete floor and after mounting are filled in with solution or become covered by the corresponding covering.
Out of limits of the floor only the power electric cable and the regulator of temperature is removed, availability of temperature regulators in each room allows to regulate temperature depending on need, and reinforced insulation does electric heating absolutely safe.
The efficiency of the electrical heating of the floor will be much higher if before laying of the cable carry out heat insulation of the field. As the heat-insulating materials apply керамзитобетон, the foam layers, stone mineral wool and other heat-insulating materials.
Cables on the floor fix by means of the special mounting tape or quick-drying glue. The heating cable is stacked in zigzag fashion the lines parallel each other, bucketed, by multiple 2,5 cm; 10 cm; 12,5 cm, etc.
Electric heating of floors at all the advantages has the number of shortcomings. So, it is impossible to apply electric heating in places with possible penetration of moisture as it becomes unsafe. Besides, application of electric heating demands special permission of the power supplying organization. In the period of the autumn and winter maximum interruptions in electric supply of certain regions therefore it is necessary to provide reserve heating are possible. These shortcomings water heating of the floor is deprived.
Option 2. Heating of the floor by means of heating cables
When mounting such floor warmly bearing element is served by the multilayer special heating electrocable. In the USAn market it is possible to meet the large number of heating electrocables of different producers. Cables on the power, diameter and so forth differ.
Temperature of the heating cable laid under the floor is regulated by the thermostat.
The heating system installed under the floor can be used as the main source of heat or as the additional source of heat indoors, the so-called heat-insulated floor. If you intend to use such cable system as the main source of heating indoors, consider that its power has to be much higher, than system power for heating of the floor.
At installation of the cable on the concrete tie 3-5 cm thick the 18 W cable on 1 running meter is applied, at any covering of the floor. At installation of heating system on the wooden floor the 10 W cable on 1 running meter is applied, the cable is established in the interval under the floor.
Mean power of the installed heating system should not exceed 80 W on 1 sq.m. This power is quite enough for heating of your house.
Installation of system of the heat-insulated floor can be carried out on the ready floor. In this case the floor height will be raised on 4-5 cm.
Heating of the floor under the tile
If you need to install heating system under the stacked tile, and to lift the gender of you there is no opportunity, it is recommended to use the heating cable laid in the grid which is specially offered for this purpose.
The cable with a diameter of 2,5 mm keeps within the so-called mat having width of 0,5 meters and length not less than 4 meters. Power of such cable on 1 sq.m is 100 W that allows to provide comfortable heating of the tiled floor. Laying of additional heat insulation in this case is not made, otherwise the solution connecting the tile because of overheating will lose durability.
The heating single-conductor cable is well picturized, is not afraid of water. The so-called "warm mat" is stacked on the basis. If it is necessary to make turn of the cable, the mat grid cut becomes.
After the system is almost installed, the floor temperature sensing device placed in the corrugated protective tube keeps within it. After that the established temperature regulator is connected to the cable and to the sensor, the tile from above is put on solution.
For identification each cable type has alphanumeric marking, besides, differs in color. The power range of the temperature regulators which are the part of system up to 3,5 kW.
Merits and demerits of the heat-insulated floor
The system of floor heating allows to increase air temperature at distance to 2-2,5 meters from the floor. At the same time temperature is distributed most conveniently for the person, that is from near surface of the floor it is 4-5 degrees higher, and in process of the movement to the ceiling gradually decreases. The system of floor heating is convenient also because the big warmed surface is capable to give bigger heating, than the small source of heat. It can be used as as the basic, and the additional source of heat when the system is mounted only in certain rooms.
"Warm with water circulating heating"
There are two types of systems of floor heating: метапол when in the floor pipes with hot water (the heat-insulated floor with water circulating heating), and the heating electric cables are mounted (the heat-insulated floor with electroheating). And recently the great popularity was received by film heat-insulated floors.
Metapol is convenient that for its use it is enough to weld pipes on the system of central heating or hot water. At the same time such system of floor heating can be used at any kind of floor coverings.
However the metafloor has also minuses, the dependence on the system of central heating and, as a result, impossibility of attemperation is basic of which. At the same time it can turn out so that there will not be enough pressure in the system of central heating to pump over all pipes.
The main danger when using the metafloor is that if when mounting the pipe are damaged, you risk to flood all neighbors, and the wear of fastening of pipes with the strut can lead to the fact that it is necessary to block all strut.
Therefore it is better to use метапол in country cottages where there is the autonomous system of heating.
The system of electroheating does not depend on central heating therefore it can be used in any house. The temperature regulator and the possibility of programming allows to adjust temperature as it is necessary, and saves from excess expenditure of the electric power. And from damages owing to failures in network you will be protected by the system of protective shutdown.
Shortcomings of such system of heating of floors is that high temperature of the surface of the floor results it in wear and also big electricity costs.
Novelty in the market of floor coverings
Quite recently in the market there was the laminated floor with the built-in system of heating. Usability of this system is that it can be established on any surface, and heating elements are built already in sites of laminate. For mounting of system it is enough to connect heating elements, and then to fasten among themselves boards, closing aluminum locks. It is possible to assign such gender and on all surface, and in certain places, for example, near the bed.
Instruction for laying of the heating cable
The general rules on laying of the heating cable for the "heat-insulated floor" system:
- The heating cable has to be applied according to the recommendations of the producer.
- Connection of the heating cable has to be made by the qualified electrician.
- It is necessary to observe the recommended power on 1 sq.m. of the floor.
- The heating cable should not be exposed to mechanical stress and stretching. The heating cable is forbidden to be shortened and extended.
- It is necessary to show accuracy not to damage the cable in the course of laying.
- It is necessary to provide the possibility of automatic switching off of the heating cable. For this purpose we recommend to use the temperature regulator.
- The heating cable has to be grounded according to the existing rules PEU and Construction Norms and Regulations.
- Laying of the cable at low temperatures causes some inconveniences since the polyvinylchloride cover of the heating cable to become rigid. This problem can be solved short-term inclusion of the unwound cable.
- It is forbidden to include not unwound cable.
- It is not recommended to stack the heating cable at the temperature below-5 os.
Working procedures on laying of the heating cable for the "heat-insulated floor" system
- To make the drawing of the warmed area, with the indication of the arrangement of the heating cable, end and connecting couplings, the temperature sensing device and the place of connection to the network circuit. In case of damage of the heating cable in the course of laying or in the course of construction works it considerably will facilitate search of the place of damage. By drawing up the drawing it is necessary to define distance between lines of the cable. It is determined by the formula: Distance (see) = the free area (sq.m.) x 100/cable length (m). The temperature sensing device is located between lines of the heating cable from the open party of the loop on distance of 50-100 cm from the wall.
- In the wall to cut through the shtroba with a section of 20 x 20 mm for laying of the temperature sensing device and the cold bonding wire and for the wall box of the temperature regulator.
- To clean the basis on which the cable, from garbage and sharp objects keeps within.
- To fix the mounting tape on the floor.
- To spread out the heating cable evenly loops on the surface of all floor, bypassing the pipes and sites intended for bathrooms, cabinets, etc. To fix the cable on the mounting tape by means of the special fastenings located through each 3 cm.
- Lines of the heating cable should not concern or be crossed among themselves.
- After installation of the cable to measure ohmic resistance. Ohmic resistance has to correspond specified on the coupling of-5% of-+10%.
- To put the temperature sensing device of the floor in the plastic tube with a diameter of 16 mm muffled on one end for prevention of hit in concrete and to place between lines of the heating cable, according to the made drawing. Diameter of the bend of the tube should not exceed 6 cm.
- To evenly fill in the cable with the solution which is not containing sharp stones. The heating cable and the connecting coupling have to be filled in completely. The tie should not exceed 5 cm.
- At the wrong filling or low-quality solution formation of air pockets around the cable is possible that can lead to exceeding of admissible temperature on the surface of the cable and, therefore, to its damage.
- After filling of the cable to measure ohmic resistance again.
- Not to include the heating cable before full hardening of solution. As a rule, the filled-in solution layer completely stiffens within 30 days. Depending on the used solution term can be reduced.
- To connect the heating cable through the temperature regulator to the power supply network. Not earlier than in a day the floor completely gets warm up to the established temperature.