Puskoreguliruyushchy devices for fluorescent lamps: design
Starter devices. The design and technical hayorakteristik of PRA have to correspond to GOST 10237-62 trebovayoniya. According to the PRA standard nazyyovat the ballast devices (BD).
Depending on availability and the nature of phase shift between current the inapryazheniye at turning on of the fluorescent lamp with data of UB distinguish:
- UBI — devices ballast inductive, poyotreblyayushchy of network the current which is lagging behind on the phase the napryayozheniye;
- UBE — devices ballast capacity, potrebyolyayushchy of network the current advancing tension on the phase;
- UBK — the devices ballast compensated, creating the electrical power factor close to unit.
In two - and multilamp PRA currents of separate lamps can not have phase lag, or have it. At the nayolichiya of phase lag between currents of separate lamps into designation of the device it is entered alphabetic oboznacheyony — And.
On design of PRA are separated on independent (N), to install the having special protection covers allowing them out of the osvetitelyyony armature, and built in (In), intended only for placement in lighting fixtures or in special protective boxes.
During the work of UB on alternating current they create the noise caused by magnetic reversal of the core дросселя and the related vibration of plates from which the core, in the step with change of magnetic field is assembled. Vibration of plates creates noise of low tone. This noise amplifies due to vibration of the casing of UB and all konyostruktion of the lamp. Besides, because of distortion of the form of curves of current and tension on the lamp there is the chirring noise of high-pitch tone. On the noise levels and radio interferences created by UB distinguish:
- devices with normal noise level and радиопомех, intended for installation in industrial rooms;
- devices with the lowered noise level and радиопомех (П), intended for installation in adminiyostrativno-office and premises.
Example of designation like the device. Two-lamp compensation, the ballast device for lamps the moshchyonost of 40 W, for inclusion in single-phase network 220 in, with phase shift between currents of lamps, built in the ispolneyoniya, with the lowered noise level and radio interferences 2UBK-40/220-AVP.
As in the networks feeding lighting installations fluctuations of tension within ±10% of the 80th rated voltage are possible, technical характеристик PRA conduct check at two values of tension: 0,9 and 1,1 rated. The main technical the trebovayoniya to which the checked PRA in these conditions have to answer are brought in tab. 1.
|Nominalyyony moshchyonost, W||Tension of no-load operation on clips of starters (effective value) not less, about||
Tension of no-load operation on clips
lamps (amplitude value) no more, and
Current of the starting mode, and
|Power losses in уб (from the power of lamps) no more, %, for types of the ballast device|
|и© less||no more||Ube||убк||Ube|
- If the ballast device is intended for several lamps, then the trebovayoniya, specified in columns 2 — 5, have to be carried out for each lamp and the staryoter irrespective of the condition of other lamps and starters.
- For ballast devices with transformation of tension the limit znayocheniye of losses increases by 1,5 times.
- Maximum permissible exceeding of temperature of the winding of UB in the operating duty made of wires with isolation of the class A, 60" With; in the presence of interlayered isolation and impregnation — 70 °C; made of wires with the class E izolyayotion — 75 °C; in the presence of interlayered isolation and impregnation — 85 °C.
- Maximum permissible exceeding of temperature of the surface of U B of 60 °C.
- In emergency operation for the UB same elements maximum permissible exceeding of temperature will be respectively: 120, 125, 130, 135 and 100 °C.
Important indicator of operability of UB is temperature which it has in the working and emergency modes. Tolerance limits of temperatures in these rezhiyoma depending on the insulating materials applied to production are specified in tab. 1. For the starter device emergency operation arises when in one of branches of UB the starter is short-circuited (its electrodes cook). In this case such branch the long time will work in the starting mode and through ballast there will pass the starting current, vyzyvayuyoshchy its overheating. Considering the possibility of increase in the nayopryazheniye in network, check of overheating of UB in the operating duty is made at 1,05, and in emergency operation — 1,1 rated voltage.
The standard regulates electrical power factor of UBK consisting of equal number of the advancing and lagging behind branches which has to be not less than 0,92. For all UBK other types the electrical power factor has to be not lower than 0,85.
Except the listed requirements determining tekhyonichesky parameters of ballast devices to them also the requirements following from the neobkhodiyomost to ensure safety and reliability of work of ballasts predjyoyavlyatsya. The size of insulation resistance of electric circuits of UB, their breakdown strength, mechanical durability, and the takyozha admissible distances between current carrying and not current carrying parts belong to such requirements.
Alphabetic reference of types of starterless appayorat is carried out how it is accepted for starter PRA. For example, the device starterless, inductive, for inclusion of one 40 W lamp in single-phase network 220 in, the built-in execution, with the lowered noise level and radio interferences:; 1ABI-40/220-VP.
The main technical requirements imposed to starterless PRA are provided in tab. 2.
The main technical requirements imposed to starterless PRA
|Rated power, W||Heat tension in the starting mode, in||Tension of the nayokal in the operating duty, in||
Tension of no-load operation, in
|Maximum current of the predvariyotelny podoyogrev at l.ltv and|
at 0,9 UH
|pri1.1 and"||minimum on clips of the lamp (effekyotivny)||
maximum on clips of the lamp (ampliyotudny)
Admissible overheating in working and emergency rezhiyom of the PRA elements is accepted same as it is specified in tab. 1.
In starterless devices emergency operation is understood as one of the following modes giving naiyobolshy heating at the accepted scheme PRA:
- the lamp or one of lamps is not included;
- one of cathodes of the lamp is torn off;
- the lamp is not lit though the chain of heating of the cathode is not damaged.
All other requirements concerning the size of electrical power factor, breakdown and mechanical strength remain same, as well as for starter devices.Top