Lighting lamps: device, versions, characteristics


Kinds of lighting lamps

Hello, dear readers! Are glad you again to welcome in the heading of "The electrician for beginners". Today's publication will be devoted to the lighting equipment. You obtain general information about lamps which are used in everyday life. In this situation you can have quite adequate question: and why, as a matter of fact, only general information? On the matter the answer following.

Некоторые разновидности ламп

Some kinds of lamps: glow lamps, halogen, luminescent, LED.

If to tell about each lamp separately, it would be too long and it would become boring for you. Besides, on the website in the section "Lighting" it was already told about the lamps which are most often found in life. Here it is possible to advise those readers who did not manage to read these articles yet, to seize this opportunity. Believe, you will not regret.

You will find answers to your many questions in these publications. The third reason for which only general information will be provided is that this heading is conducted in the form of the encyclopedia in which all material is given in the short form, but also at the same time the most important points which the beginning electrician or just house master can use further are allocated.

Among all electroadjusting products the lighting equipment has the most wide choice. It occurs because lighting is one of the most important elements of any room from the esthetic and decorative point of view. Possibilities of modern lamps and lamps are rather big. And in general it is not necessary to speak about the variety. It is so big that in some cases and the professional electrician can get confused.

Таблица светоотдачи ламп

Table of luminous efficiency of lamps.

At numerous types of lamps light nature different, as well as conditions in which they are exploited. At the same time all lamps have one general part - it is the socle. There is rather wide choice both lamps, and socles.

As you understand, on these images only the small part of socles which you can meet in life.
The main characteristic of all lamps is power. On the flask or the socle all producers specify the power on which the luminosity of the lamp depends. In lamps of the different nature of light power has absolutely different values. The luminosity of lamps is calculated in lumens. Usually such data on the lamp do not specify.

The luminous efficiency means that on 1 W of power the lamp gives the certain quantity light lumen. On it it is necessary to leave the general concepts about lamps and to pass directly to the story about different types of lamps.

Glow lamp

Виды цоколей ламп накаливания

Types of socles of glow lamps.

Any glow lamp consists of the vacuum glass cylinder (or flasks), the socle on which contacts and the safety lock and the threads of incandescence radiating light are located.

The spiral of incandescence is made of tungsten alloys which with ease maintain the working temperature of burning of +3200 °C. That lamp thread instantly did not fuse, in modern glow lamps pump some inert gas, for example argon in the flask.
The principle of work of such lamp is rather simple. At transmission of current through the conductor of small section and low conductivity the part of energy leaves on the spiral conductor warming up from what that begins to shine.

In spite of the fact that presently modern production of lamps evolved dramatically forward, glow lamps still remain light sources, despite some shortcomings in the forefront:

  1. Low efficiency, no more than 2-3% of the consumed energy. All the rest goes to heat.
  2. It is unsafe from the fire-prevention point of view.
  3. This type of lamps is short-lived. Service life makes 500-1500 h.

It is possible to carry to number of pluses: low cost, simplicity of mounting (twisted and forgot) and instant obtaining the set luminous efficiency.

LED lamps

Виды цоколей

Types of socles.

This product of high technology was for the first time created in 1962. Since then LED lamps gradually began to be implemented on the market.

The LED by the principle of action − is the most normal semiconductor at which the part of energy in transition of p-n is dumped in the form of photons, and in other words, in the form of visible light.

These lamps have excellent characteristics: they in tens of times exceed in all respects glow lamps. But nevertheless they have one rather serious shortcoming - it is high cost.

Halogen lamps

Виды галогенных ламп

Types of halogen lamps.

These lamps a little in what differ from glow lamps (unless in some cases on design features), but the principle of work the same. There is also one more difference from glow lamps are the gas structure in the cylinder.

In these lamps to inert gas add bromine or iodine. As a result there is possible the temperature increase of thread of incandescence and reduction of evaporation of tungsten. At the same time glass heating temperature considerably increases and therefore halogen lamps do of quartz material. Lamps do not suffer pollution on the flask. It is impossible to touch with the unprotected hand the cylinder, the lamp with such pollution will fuse very quickly.

Halogen lamps can have also other design.

As you see, on these images halogen lamps can differ from each other not only in flasks, but also socles (the image of types of socles of halogen lamps which you can meet, are stated above). It is also necessary to note that this type of lamps is rather sensitive to changes of voltage.

KLL (or compact fluorescent lamps)

Now emergence in the market of KLL made the real revolution in lighting engineering. Here the most important defects of fluorescent lamps – their big sizes and impossibility to use normal cut cartridges and socles were eliminated. PRA were built in in the lamp socle, and the long tube was curtailed in the compact spiral. Today the variety of types of KLL is very high. They differ not only on the power, but also in the form of digit tubes.

On the image it is well visible how PRA in the lamp socle went in and as it can look.

Pluses of such lamp it is available:

But at all the beauty and convenience this type of lamps, as well as at all luminescent, has shortcomings:

  1. If to use illumination indicators in the switch, the lamp begins to flicker.
  2. Mercury compounds are the part of the lamp.
  3. Demands special utilization.
  4. These lamps do not love frequent inclusion and switching off.
  5. Rather expensive.
  6. Do not work together with the dimmer.
  7. Long time of start – from several seconds to several minutes.
  8. The low-frequency rumble from electronic ballast is sometimes heard.
  9. Lamps this of the look badly work at low temperatures, at -10 °C and begin to shine dimly below, and in some cases can not be lit at all.
  10. Light of this lamp is still not really similar to natural and hurts the eyes.

Despite all the shortcomings, KLL nevertheless help us to save the electric power (the truth when burn long enough) and, respectively, money.

Except KLL, there is the set of kinds of energy saving lamps without the built-in electronic ballast. All of them have other types of socles.

Fluorescent lamps

The principle of operation of fluorescent lamps seriously differs from glow lamps. Instead of tungsten thread in the glass flask of such lamp mercury vapors under the influence of electric current burn.

Light of the discharge through gases is almost invisible as it is radiated in ultraviolet. The last forces to shine люминоформ which covered tube walls. It is also visible light.

Fluorescent lamps have low working temperature. The big surface of the luminescence of this type of lamps always creates equal diffused light. For this reason they are called sometimes fluorescent lamps. On the service life these lamps exceed glow lamps approximately by 10 times.

Схема устройства люминесцентной лампы

Scheme of the device of the fluorescent lamp.

Minus of this type of lamps is the impossibility of direct connection to your power supply network. For its inclusion ballasts are inevitably used. Along with electronic ballasts starters which kind of set fire to the lamp at the time of inclusion are used.

Marking of fluorescent lamps is not similar to simple designations of the same glow lamps which have only the power indicator. Below the image of interpretation of domestic lamps is provided.

Lamps with the improved quality of the color rendition after the letters designating color have the letter C, and at especially quality color rendition there are letters ZZ. Marking of lamps of the glow discharge begins with letters T.

On the range of emitted light of the lamp are subdivided:

  1. LB – this world.
  2. LD – the daylight.
  3. LE – natural light.
  4. LHB – cold light.
  5. LTB – warm light.

In conclusion allow to give to you advice: get lamps of the checked producers, and they to you will serve belief and the truth not one year.

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