Mounting of the electrical wiring in the apartment: councils and recommendations
If you planned to make good, modern repair in the apartment, then the question of the electrical wiring should pay primary attention.
It belongs not only to old housing stock, but also to houses of late building. In some apartments everything is so difficult made and such wire is used that it is much simpler to carry out new mounting. For certain you often heard from the acquaintances: the lamp in kitchen ceased to burn or the socket, etc. does not work.
Generally these statements concern owners of apartments. In the private sector these problems are extremely rare. From the experience: my house was under construction in the mid-sixties, wiring - copper of 2,5 mm ², sockets - ceramics very high quality, the subpress of electrodes of the fork still did not lose the working capacity. But, having decided to do modern design, dismantled these high-quality sockets and switches and established modern, beautiful, and though chose ceramics with good contacts, all the same two or three sockets were heated, even upper covers podplavitsya.
It was necessary to buy new to replace them. But in the market it is possible to pick up also good goods. The main thing not to evaluate it only on beauty. If you have electrical facilities of this kind and the apartment your, privatized, then it is better to make, of course, new wiring before European-quality repair – it will not cost much. Having made the correct decision, we draw on walls point chalk where there will be switches, sockets and terminal boxes.
If your power meter costs on the site, then it can be transferred to the apartment, having replaced on electronic – two-tariff. Now it is desirable to make input more powerful - 4-6 mm ² and three-core with the grounding wire. We choose the number of automatic machines in the guard at discretion, it depends on the apartment size. It is possible to make two wings is two automatic machines, the washing machine and the Split system, already it turns out four that is obligatory. Besides, on the washing machine it is necessary to carry out the separate socket and to connect through OUZO, it is desirable and for the Split system to carry out the separate power supply too.
Then we define the place for installation of the guard. Choice now very big. It is better to put the guard in the done deepening that the front cover was aflush with the wall. After you drew the installation site of sockets and switches (now generally height of sockets of 30-40 cm from the floor, and switches - 50-60 cm), draw lines of approach of wires.
Such order: the wire has to be laid horizontally (from the ceiling of 10-15 cm) and strictly vertically (fields which case not on diagonal). The exception – chandeliers, to them the wire can go on the shortest distance, corners of the omitting of wires - 90 degrees, the installation site of switches - 10 cm from the door box. The safety measures do not allow placement of sockets near the grounded metal devices (water - and gas pipelines, batteries of central heating, sinks, gas and electric stoves), the minimum distance from such devices to the socket – 50 cm.
The same rules forbid to install sockets and switches in rooms of the increased humidity: shower, toilet and bathrooms.
Sockets in adjacent rooms can be installed in parallel, but having thought over what will be on these sockets loading. If powerful electric devices are connected (the vacuum cleaner, the electroiron, the dishwasher, etc.), then these sockets have to be personal, i.e. cannot be in parallel connected. The scheme is drawn, now we do deepening under the guard, here it is possible to work with the chisel and to drill, everything depends on what walls are made of.
We do the place with the small allowance that it was possible to have the stock for equal installation. When the place is prepared, it is possible to fix the guard on plaster, leaving places for input of the wire free. Now on the drawn lines we do the shtroba for the wire. For the shtrobleniye of grooves under the wire it is possible to use the grinder, to do the path 2-3 cm wide and 2 cm in depth. In places where there will pass several wires, the size has to be increased. It is better to do installation sites of switches, sockets and terminal boxes by the mill, to do the opening with the small allowance that all parties of the podrozetnik fastened alabaster or plaster for reliable installation.
Podrozetniki is better to put after the wire is laid in the shtroba. Someone puts them first of all, and then already gets the wire. Differences are in what to do earlier no. Podrozetnik it is necessary to establish aflush with the wall or to deepen slightly on 2-3 mm, it is better plastic with screws for fastening of the socket or the switch. Stacking the wire in the shtroba, temporarily fix it by nails that it kept before fixing with plaster. To do dabs by plaster through 30-40 cm. The wire is not recommended to be cut in advance, everything is better to do on the work course.
When all wires approached the terminal box, it is possible to start installation of the box. We drag wires through box openings, we try on, we cover the box with plaster and we begin, easily turning to the right-to the left, to set to the necessary position, holding some time that the box was taken. We make the same also with podrozetnik. In boxes and podrozetnik we do wires with the small stock, but not too long, all moderately. Now, when the wire is laid, terminal boxes and podrozetnik are installed, we begin to collect the scheme in terminal boxes.
First, we remove isolation from all wires that naked once upon a time there was not less than 5 cm. When collected the scheme, we do twist such that there was only the contact since it is necessary to check whether the scheme is correctly collected.
For check it is possible to use several control lamps, having temporarily twisted them instead of the chandelier and sockets. When were convinced of correctness of the scheme, we do everything capitally, we twist wires by means of combination pliers. The twist has to be dense, but do not draw not to tear off the vein.
Then isolate the insulating tape, for this purpose recommend polyvinyl chloride, it well holds moisture, but in the dry room it is possible to use also rag isolation. Concerning unsoldering of wires: on the switch there has to be the phase, respectively, on the bulb - zero. For the socket the phase at the left or on the right - there is no difference. Concerning wire section: on sockets - section at least 2,5 mm ², on lighting is possible for 1,5-2,0 mm ², copper is better, of course. And so with each subsequent box. To close boxes, to put sockets and switches is not necessary, you do not zashtukaturit the damaged walls yet.
In conclusion of work it is possible to draw the scheme of the electrical wiring, perhaps, it is useful in the future.Top