The correct mounting of the electrical wiring in the apartment
Before starting mounting of the electrical wiring, it is necessary to define guard installation sites with the counter, switches, sockets, connection boxes, lamps and also to mark installation sites of electric devices and the place of input of wires to the apartment.
Note ways of laying of the main line of wires, branches from it, places of turns and passes through walls. Here for all types of wiring one rule works: wires on walls are located or on
strictly horizontal, or on strictly verticals; the angles of turns of the route of the electrical wiring – 90 °.
At the same time horizontal sites of the electrical wiring it is the best of all to lay at distance 10–20 cm from the ceiling, on the lines parallel to the joint of the ceiling and walls (such placement reduces risk of mechanical damage of the electrical wiring).
But this rule has also the exception: on interfloor or garret overlappings of the wire lay on the shortest distance from the razvetvitelny box to the place of fastening of the ceiling lamp.
When performing the hidden electroconductings laid in overlappings, the route is marked in the shortest way, and on walls it is horizontal (parallel to the ceiling) or vertically (parallel to corners of walls).
Places of mounting of razvetvitelny boxes, irrespective of the type of wiring or the box, establish in points of branches of wires from the main line (during descent to sockets, switches). The marking of places for installation of sockets and switches is done, being guided by the following reasons. If the switch needs to be installed at the entrance to the room (indoors or out of it), then the installation site is chosen so that the door did not concern the switch. The distance from the wires suitable to the switch, to the jamb of the door has to be not less than 100 mm, the same distance has to be when laying wires near the window.
Height of installation of sockets and switches depends on different factors of assignment of the room, convenience of connection of electric devices, the interior (everything has to be coordinated with requirements for safety measures). Standard height for installation of sockets is 70–100 cm from the floor (for Euro to the standard of 30 cm from the floor).
The safety measures do not allow placement of sockets near the grounded metal devices (water – and gas pipelines, batteries of central heating, sinks, gas and electric stoves), the minimum distance from such devices to the socket – 50 cm. The same rules forbid to install sockets and switches in rooms of the increased humidity: shower, toilet and bathrooms.
Sockets on the wall separating two rooms of one apartment put from each party of the wall the friend opposite to the friend and connect to the electrical wiring chain in parallel, through the opening punched in the wall. When making the buried electrical wiring it is better to transfer its marking to paper and to keep the received plan scheme (it for certain is useful at possible repair of the electrical wiring).
For installation of switches there are two standards – 50–80 and 150 cm from the floor. Installation of the switch on the ceiling is allowed at inclusion and its shutdown from the floor by means of the lace. In nurseries height of installation of the switch has to be not less than 180 cm from the floor. In those rooms where access for children to switches is impossible, they are allowed to be established at the height not less than 150 cm from the floor.
Note the guard installation site with the power meter. As a rule, it is established near input to the apartment, at the height of 1,5-1,7 m from the floor.
The following stage of the preparatory stage of electric installation work – the procuring, including collecting and preparation of wires, cables, sockets, switches, etc., necessary for work. First of all, it is cutting of wires and cables: they are cut pieces which length has to be ideally equal to distance between razvetvitelny boxes and the razvetvitelny box and the consumer of electric current (the socket, the switch, the lamp).
To the net length of each piece add 10–15 cm for implementation of connection of wires among themselves and connections to contacts of sockets and switches. (If length of the certain site of the electrical wiring, for example, from one razvetvitelny box to another, exceeds length of the available wire and the piece it is necessary to make of 2–3 pieces, then places of their connections among themselves place in specially established connection boxes.) This stage assumes also cutting and installation of tubes on which wires will pass through walls.
The buried electrical wiring is mounted parts. Wires of the buried wiring can be laid in walls, ceilings, the bases, overlappings, under removable floors and in other structural elements of buildings. It is done before plastering and laying of the clean floor. Wires can be placed in pipes or flexible sleeves from nonflammable plastic, in emptiness of building constructions, in grooves under plaster.
To stretch wires in emptiness of plates of overlappings and to remove to lamps, in plates punch or drill openings. Wires are stretched by means of the steel wire or the rope with a diameter of 3-4 mm which put to canals (emptiness) of plates. The stretched wires strongly fix by one end of the wire and stretch to the place of their exit from the plate.
The route of the electrical wiring is carried out in the following order. Horizontal laying on walls is conducted, as a rule, parallel to lines of crossing of walls with the ceiling at distance by 10–20 cm from the ceiling or 5–10 cm from eaves or the beam. Descents and rises to lamps, switches, plug adapters should be carried out on verticals. On overlappings (in plaster, slots, emptiness or plates of overlappings) wires need to be laid on the shortest distance between the razvetvitelny box and lamps.
When crossing pipelines with combustible liquids and gases laying of wires it is necessary to carry out at distance 10 cm from the pipeline or in furrows in insulating pipes. When crossing wires with pipelines with heated surfaces (hot pipelines) or at their laying parallel to these pipelines, wires should be protected from influence of high temperature.
At parallel laying of the wire place at distance not less than 10 cm from hot pipelines, and from pipelines with combustible liquids – not less than 25 cm. It is necessary to avoid crossing of flat wires among themselves. In need of such crossing isolation of the wire in places of crossings has to be strengthened by three-four layers of the rubberized or polyvinyl chloride adhesive tape.
When using three-core flat wires in lighting networks of the vein, separated by the wide film, it is necessary to use for chains of different phases, and the third vein – as the zero wire.
Exit it is hidden the laid wires on the surface of walls or overlappings (for example, for accession to the lamp or to not drowned switch, the plug adapter) it is necessary to carry out via insulating tubes, porcelain or plastic plugs or funnels.
Connections and branches of wires need to be done in razvetvitelny boxes. Boxes can be plastic or from other isolating material. Application of metal boxes with the isolating laying in them is allowed. Branches of wires can be carried out in input boxes of switches, plug adapters and lamps. Accessions and branches of laid it is hidden flat wires it is necessary to carry out not less than 5 cm with the wire stock.
The direct suspender of the wire on flat wires is inadmissible. Metal boxes in places of input of flat wires have to have plugs from insulating material, or it is necessary to impose additional isolation (three-four layers of the insulating tape) on the wire.
Apply the flexible copper wire with a section not less than 0,75 mm2 to connection to the lighting power supply network of lamps. Length of wires from network of lighting to the lamp in wet, crude rooms (in toilets, shower, in the outer entrance hall of houses) has to be minimum. Conductings should be placed out of these rooms, and lamps – on the wall, next to the electrical wiring. The hidden laying of flat wires on overlappings is carried out by one of the next ways:
- under the layer of wet plaster of the ceiling of overlappings from fireproof plates, similar to laying on fireproof walls and partitions under the layer of wet plaster;
- in emptiness of steel concrete plates and panels;
- in gaps between combined steel concrete plates with the subsequent seal by their alabaster solution;
- in gaps between the bricklaying.
To the zashtukaturivaniye of the wire fix temporarily in certain places by "primorazhivaniye" by means of alabaster solution, distance between points of "primorazhivaniye" no more than 25 cm.
It is necessary to consider that alabaster solution very quickly hardens and gets at the same time the increased durability therefore in 1–2 minutes after drawing alabaster lumps they should be flattened to isolation of the wire.
Then all sites of electrical wire should be rung out the tester, at positive result of the groove it is possible to zashtukaturivat. Fastening of wires brackets or collars from plastic, rubber, the cotton tape is possible.
When laying wires in gaps between the bricklaying (without the subsequent plastering) the wire is fixed in the furrow by cement mortar not less than 5 mm thick. When laying wires with the subsequent plastering furrow depth under wires less than 5 mm, with thickness of the plaster layer not less than 5 mm is allowed.
The hidden laying of flat wires on the wooden bases has to be carried out under the plaster coat lined under wires of the layer of sheet asbestos not less than 3 mm thick or on plaster not less than 5 mm thick. At the same time asbestos or the plaster coat have to be laid over shingle, or shingle has to be cut on width of asbestos laying. Asbestos or the plaster coat have to act not less than on 5 mm from each party of the wire. Fastening of flat wires directly nails at any way of the hidden laying of wires inadmissibly.
The hidden laying of wires of APPVS, NPA, APV on the wooden, covered with dry plaster plaster walls and partitions is conducted in the gap between the wall and plaster in the continuous layer of alabaster it is mashed or between two layers of sheet asbestos. Thickness of sheet asbestos has to be not less than 3 mm, and the alabaster layer – 5 mm. The layer of alabaster or asbestos from each party of the wire has to act not less than on 5 mm. Fastening by brackets or collars from plastic, rubber, the cotton tape is allowed. Length of strips for production of brackets has to be 8 cm.
Switches and sockets at the buried electrical wiring fix by means of steel boxes which build in switches and plug adapters. The steel box is hit to the slot alabaster solution.
Diameter of the slot has to be not less than 8 cm, depth – not less than 4,5 cm. For accession of the flat wire to clips of the switch or the plug adapter the dividing film needs to be cut or cut on the site of accession.
Metal boxes in places of input of flat wires have to have plugs from the isolating material, or it is necessary to impose additional isolation (3–4 layers of the rubberized insulating tape or sticky polyvinyl chloride) on the wire.
Switches, sockets and cartridges at the open way of laying of the electrical wiring mount directly in the course of mounting and connection of conductors. At the hidden way electroadjusting parts mount after completion of finishing works (for this time the ends of wires have to be isolated and protected from mechanical damages and pollution by plaster solution, paint, etc.).
Mounting of sockets and switches is made according to the following scheme: at first to the wall wooden platforms for the socket (fix at open wiring) or to slots install metal or plastic boxes to which through openings bring end sites of wires (at the buried wiring); then install the socket (or the switch), and its fasteners connect to electrical wiring wires then the mechanism is closed the body of the switch or the socket.
At connection of wires with the socket there is no essential difference to what plug of the socket to connect the phase wire and to what – zero.
Other business – connection of wires to the lamp and its switch. Here it is necessary to define precisely connection with the phase or the neutral of plugs of the lamp and plugs of its switch. At operation of the electrical wiring, perhaps, it is necessary to change the fused lamp or to repair the cartridge of the lamp or maybe to replace the lamp with more modern. About safety of performance of these works it is necessary to see to it at the mounting stage.
That repair works were not conducted energized, it is necessary to mount the branch from the line to the lamp so that the switch of the lamp was connected to the phase wire, and the lamp socle (its outside feedwell with the thread) – with the grounded neutral.
In this case at position of the switch "is disconnected" safety of manipulations with the lamp it is ensured. If to make connection of phase and neutral conductors on the contrary (phase – to the lamp, neutral – to the switch), then even at the switched-off switch, accidentally having touched the bared contacts of the lamp, it is possible to close on itself the chain and to receive defeat by electric current.
If wiring in the dwelling is laid not by the owner, then it is desirable to define whether lamps are correctly connected to network and whether it is necessary to be afraid of unexpected blow by electric current at their repair. For this purpose the indicator screw-driver will be required.
It is necessary to uncover the switch and to touch with the screw-driver sting its plugs: if at position of the switch "is switched on" the lamp burns, and the indicator bulb of the screw-driver does not shine, then the switch is connected to the neutral, respectively, the lamp – to the phase if the indicator bulb shines, so the switch is connected correctly – to the phase wire of the chain.Top