Tool kit for the electrician


Main tools of the electrician

During the work with electricity many tools, both the general character, and specialized are necessary. Further we will consider the short list of all necessary that is required at installation and repair of electric equipment. Among the set of devices which have to be near at hand the most part is applied also to other needs under repair or construction. From these tools there are a lot of acquaintances, but the way of their application at electric installation work is rather specific and demands detailed consideration.

Молоток с деревянной или прорезиненной рукояткой.

The hammer with the wooden or rubberized handle.

Hammer

It is the best of all to get not one, and a little with the different weight quickly. Three hammers with brisk in 600, 300 and 150 g will be quite enough for any situation. The smallest hammer is useful if it is necessary to hammer small nails of fastening of the electroadjusting bracket. It is good if the average hammer has the nail-catcher (fig. 1) on the reverse. In addition to hammers it is good to have the mall wooden or rubber. It is useful during the work with the chisel or with sheet iron.

It is simply necessary when performing connection of wires by means of clips or bolts with the nut and also for untwisting of connections in different devices, for example distribution boards. It is the best of all to have the set of keys with mesh sizes, from 6 to 41 mm. At the moment there are universal sets of keys with one handle and the set of nozzles. They it is much more convenient also than easier classical tools.

Mounting knife

Universal thing. It is useful anyway. One note: the knife for electric installation work has to be with the isolated handle. In shops the wide choice of various knives for all types of works. If it is necessary to work at height and to drag tools in the mounting belt, it is possible to get or make the knife with the sheath safely to move and without problems to take it to the touch.

Set of screw-drivers

One more necessary thing. Screw-drivers have to be with the isolated handle and have as much as possible kinds of the working part: slit (flat), cross and hexagons. It is the best of all to acquire set with replaceable nozzles and separately screw-drivers with the long sting and also additional isolation to perform works in hard-to-reach spots.

Flat-nose pliers

1. Бокорезы; 2. Плоскогубцы; 3. Плоскогубцы разводные.

1. Side cutting pliers; 2. Flat-nose pliers; 3. Adjustable flat-nose pliers.

It is more correct to call this tool combination pliers as it includes flat-nose pliers, side cutting pliers and two cutting torches for the wire.

Any electrician always has to have flat-nose pliers near at hand. By means of this tool the set of operations is carried out.

Combination pliers - the universal tool which is used practically in all metalwork installation works.

Wiring flat-nose pliers differ from normal in the isolated handles.

Side cutting pliers

Are a little similar to combination pliers. Differ in narrower specialization: they are intended for the perekusyvaniye of wires, the skusyvaniye of the sticking-out screws or nails and for anything more.

Round-nose pliers

The tool is similar to combination pliers with the long and rounded-off sponges. Round-nose pliers are intended for figured flexure of the wire that it is useful when mounting the different type of clips and contacts.

File

There is the set of types: from massive rasps with the rough effective area to thin files. At electric installation work the file of the average sizes, flat or trihedral is useful. It is necessary for grinding of veins of conductors, grinding of isolation and other works where adjustment of surfaces is required.

Схема устройства напильника

Scheme of the device of the file.

Chisel

It is the shock cutting tool by means of which in the stone or metal grooves and openings make the way. It is useful at the shtrobleniye of stone surfaces, especially in problem places where does not get the electric tool. Adaptation which is put on it from rubber intended for protection of hands against blows of the hammer - the fungus is applied to the chisel.

Hacksaw

Consists of the handle and the frame on which the replaceable cloth for metal cutting stretches. Some models have the special handle which regulates the cloth turning angle. It is applied when cutting the massive cable and to performance of the accompanying works.

Chisel chisel

The carpenter's cutting tool used during the works with the tree. It is necessary for gouging of deepenings in the tree, removals of facets and cleaning of grooves. Chisels differ in the form of the cutting edge: semi-lunar, direct, figured and also klyuvoobrazny. It is possible to work the hand or by means of the hammer or the mall.

Belt for tools

Пояс для инструментов

The belt for tools is done of strong fabric.

Electric installation work is often carried out in hard-to-reach spots: at height, in narrow cabinets or interceiling space. In such conditions it is necessary that the tool was near at hand.

The mounting belt is useful when it is necessary not to occupy hands and not to clamp all arsenal of tools in teeth. It conveniently fastens on the belt and has the set of pockets and loops in which it is possible to place everything that is necessary. Has the set of modifications for the most different works.

Tape measure

One of the main measuring tools. It is useful for removal of the sizes of working objects what is required for determination of quantity of the cable, distance between electric points, etc. For electric installation work choose the tool with the greatest length, 7,5–10 m. If necessary it is possible to get the special tape measure with the tape up to 50 m long made of cloth.

Caliper

The tool for measurement of thickness of wires. There is both the mechanical caliper, and digital. The last is much more expensive, but does not demand special skills in recognition of results of measurement.

Screw-driver sampler

Отвертка пробник.

Screw-driver sampler.

It is called still the indicator, or, more precisely, the phase monitor. This tool is externally similar to the normal screw-driver and can be used for the corresponding designated purpose. However the primal problem at the screw-driver sampler absolutely another. The neon lamp is built in the indicator handle made of transparent plastic. At the end face of the handle there is the shunt contact. If necessary to define availability of the phase on the wire the sting of the indicator is put to it and the contact at the end face nestles the finger. If the phase is, then the lamp will flash.

Kinds of samplers exists much. Among them there is the tool with multi-purpose functions. In addition to availability of the phase, with its help it is possible to find the live conductor hidden in the wall or to precisely define numerical values of tension and current intensity. Classical samplers are expected tension and current intensity of the home network, according to 220 V and 10-16 A.

Pincers for isolation removal

The thing is very useful, especially if you are not going to be limited to minor repair, and want to be engaged in electric installation work seriously.

Клещи для снятия изоляции

Pincers for removal of isolation are intended for cleaning of wires from the insulating layer.

Pressing pincers

The tool for molding of cable terminals. It is not always convenient to press out sleeves for the cable by means of flat-nose pliers and connection will not be reliable. By means of pressing pincers it is possible to mold cable terminals, sleeves and connectors with high degree of reliability.

Pincers for pressing of the twisted pair cable

This tool is necessary for the press fitting of veins of the twisted pair cable in the tip. Without such pincers it is impossible to connect two computers in one network or to connect one of them to the Internet.

Insulating tape

Схема изоляции проводов

Scheme of isolation of wires.

It is rather not the tool, but the expendable material, but any electrician does not do without insulating tape. It always has to be in any tool kit. This flexible isolating material can be several types. Classical (on the basis of the plastic tape) can serve not only the isolating material, but also as the tap for wires. Especially for this purpose the insulating tape is painted in different colors.

Made of cloth (black color) though concedes to modern types, but nevertheless enjoys popularity at many electricians. It reacts to temperature less and is not so melted off as the insulating tape from rubber. Now manufacturing firms of tools for construction offer the combined sets of different devices. The choice only behind the scope of work and financial opportunities.

Perforator

This tool the most important. The perforator is intended for drilling and slotting of openings in any materials: stone, metal, tree, plastics, etc. Of course, the mode of slotting is applied to all materials, and mainly, to the stone. In any perforator there are three modes: drilling when it carries out the drill task, shock drilling at which the working nozzle, rotating, has blows, and slotting when there is no rotational motion, and is only shock. These modes do the perforator by really universal tool. With its help it is possible to drill openings, to do shtroba, to split up and split the stone, to force down old plaster, to stir construction solutions, etc. The perforator - something between the drill and the jackhammer.

Схема устройства перфоратора

Scheme of the device of the perforator.

There is the set of brands and types of perforators. One of them are used in professional work of builders, others are intended for house needs. Their main distinction - in period of operation and power. The professional tool of brands of Makita and Bosch costs rather much, but it quite is repaid when it is necessary to drill within several hours openings in concrete, to beat off stratifications of plaster or to split the old cement tie. Power of such tool - 1–1,5 kW. Household models have the power twice smaller and on period of operation much more concede to the professional tool.

Buying the perforator, it is necessary to represent accurately for what works it is necessary: for large-scale repair one look, is intended for short-term replacement of couple of wires - another. The difference in the price between them will be big.

The perforator can be used and as the screw driver, but it belongs to models, small on weight, as to hold one hand the tool weighing 4 kg not to everyone on the shoulder. At the same time the device has to have the rotation sense switch — the reverse. It is good if the perforator has the power regulator.

As a rule, the device has the working head intended for fastening of drills and working nozzles, but not for normal drills on metal and the tree. It speaks simply. At shock loads the vice of cams of fastening of normal type could not hold the working nozzle in the slotting/drilling mode, being weakened at continuous vibration. If it is necessary to use the perforator for drilling of metal, the tree or plastic, it is necessary to buy special adapters with clips of cam type which are inserted directly into the tool head. In some models it is possible to change heads, attaching them directly to the perforator. For performance of different types of works there are special nozzles.

Насадки для работы при помощи перфоратора.

Nozzles for work by means of the perforator.

The drill is intended for drilling of openings in concrete and the different look the stone, is externally similar to the drill on metal or the tree. Differs in type of fastening and the special insert - the plate at the top made of hard-facing alloys, in particular of the pobedit. The shaft at the drill is thickened, on it several longitudinal dredging for fastening in the boss is located. The drill does not drag on, like the drill, and is inserted into the cartridge where it is fixed before click, but is not rigid, and has the backlash approximately in 1 cm. It becomes in order that the drill worked in the shock mode with the maximum return. As the shaft during the work experiences strong strain and friction, lubricant is applied on it. Drills have the set of versions, differing in length and diameter.

Drills are not used when drilling openings in the hollow or soft (red) brick. Because of the backlash drills have the low accuracy of drilling therefore before beginning to drill the wall, it is possible, having turned on the perforator in the drilling mode, to plan the point where it is necessary to make the opening.

Crown on concrete - the nozzle intended for drilling of round openings in concrete and the stone. Considerably simplifies work on creation of dredging for sockets of the hidden type. Has the diamond sputtering and the special cutting inserts from hard-facing alloys on edge of the crown.

The crown on soft materials - is intended for drilling of openings in gypsum cardboard, the tree, plaster, plastic and even in glass. For each material there is the separate type of the crown.

Crowns on soft materials are used in the mode of drilling and have fastening of cam type.

The nozzle mixer is necessary when it is necessary to prepare different construction mixes: plaster, cement mortar, the putty or glue for plaster.

Grinding wheels. The nozzle brush and the circle for sharpening of the tool. These are the special devices performing additional works.

Nozzles for slotting. It the different type of the chisel and peaks for work in the slotting mode when the perforator is used as the jackhammer.

Hammer drill

Схема устройства ударной дрели

Scheme of the device of the hammer drill.

Generally reminds the perforator, but on all indicators much more concedes to it. Besides, such drill has no slotting mode but only slottings/drillings. It is applied in that case when works of small scale are performed and it is unprofitable to buy the perforator. Now practically all drills have the option of the shock mode. Most often such tool is used as the drill, extremely seldom applying the slotting mode. Except drilling of openings in metal, the tree and plastics, the drill is applied as the screw driver.

The hammer drill is not replacement to the perforator. Use will lead its long time as the professional tool for slotting drilling to damage. Normal working nozzles for drills are the different type of the drill. Such nozzles are very different. For each certain material the drill is used. To metal there corresponds one look, and to the tree - another. You should not use drills on unappropriated material: and results will not be, and this adaptation, most likely, will become useless.

Screw driver

The second name - the cordless drill. Though this tool is also called the drill, after all more often it is used for twisting of screws and self-tapping screws. Screw drivers differ in accumulators from 9 to 24 V and some options. Drills can be one - and 2-speed.

2-speed is convenient that in one mode it is used as the screw driver (spindle rotational speed - 400 RPM), and in another - the drill (speed - 800–1300 RPM). Besides, the drill has the regulator of the torsion torque that with the necessary force to twist screws without risk to break fixture hat.

Схема устройства шуруповерта

Scheme of the device of the screw driver.

Except screw drivers of pistol type, there are so-called electric screw-drivers.

This tool is externally similar to the normal screw-driver, but is larger the sizes. The electric screw-driver is convenient that, having tightened fixture till the certain moment, it is possible to record one movement the nozzle and to complete work manually. There are models at which it is possible to change the turning angle of the working part for convenience of twisting of screws in hard-to-reach spots. For screw drivers the working nozzles called by bits are used.

The bat is device which is inserted in the drill cartridge. By means of the bat fixtures (fig. 41) twist the different look. There is the set of types of the bits differing both by the sizes and firm manufacturer, and in the form of the working part (fig. 42).

NOTE: You should not save upon purchase of bits as cheap are erased very quickly while expensive models serve much longer and do not complicate work.

Grinder

In the popular speech Bulgarian. Along with the perforator is the universal tool for work with metal, the stone, the tree and plastic. By means of the Bulgarian it is possible to process practically any material: to grind, make spent on drink and to cut. In electric installation work it is used generally for punching штроб under the cable and as the improvised device for cutting of material and sharpening of the tool. As well as in the case with the perforator, distinguish the professional tool and household.

Bulgarians strongly differ by the sizes. There are real machines weighing under ten kilograms for cutting of the stone on speed of 11 000 rpm and small models for work as one hand. The second case most is suitable for works with electricity.

Схема устройства углошлифовальной машины

Scheme of the device of the grinder.

During the work with the Bulgarian uses special disks, replaceable or constant. Replaceable happen two types: for work on the stone and metal. Besides, they differ on thickness and diameter.

Upon purchase of disks it is necessary to be especially attentive to quality of products as the Bulgarian treats tools of the increased danger. Low-quality disks can put the serious injury therefore you should not save on purchase. Diamond belong to constant disks. They are made of hard-alloy metal with the diamond sputtering or inclusions. Are much more expensive than replaceable disks, but are much more long-lasting and safe.

Shtroborez

The highly specialized tool intended especially for slotting штроб. Resembles the Bulgarian superficially. This device is necessary when amount of works on punching штроб is rather large-scale. The tool expensive and to buy it for one-time work there is no need.

Soldering iron

It is useful not only to fans of the electronic equipment, but also the house electrician. It is applied when it is necessary to create especially reliable twist and for accession of wires to contacts. The twisted wires are soldered by special solders that gives mechanical and contact durability to twist.

Multimeter

The multifunction measuring device which includes the ampermeter, the voltmeter and the ohmmeter. There are analog and digital models. The latest digital multi-meters include the set of additional options, but, as a rule, they are necessary to professional electricians.

Схема устройства мультиметра

Scheme of the device of the multimeter.

For the house master it is quite enough to use this device for measurement of current intensity, its tension and for ring-up of chains. The appearance of the multimeter or the avometer can frighten the unusual person.

The mass of buttons, connectors and switches - and seem that without special training not to understand it. Actually, having attentively read the instruction, even the unprepared person with ease will understand ways to use the device and its indication.

One more option of the multimeter - clamp-on ammeters. Such device it is very convenient to take readings from the bared parts of wires.

In conclusion it is necessary to tell several words about safety of work with electric tools. It is enough to observe elementary precautionary measures and to watch the condition of the device as the majority of injuries happens during the work with faulty tools. During the work with electric tools it is necessary to use protective gloves and special glasses. The danger of electric tools consists not only in risk to put the injury with moving parts, but also in possible defeat by current. In order to avoid such situation it is necessary to follow two simple rules.

The first - not to touch the tool with wet hands and not to wet it water.

The second - it is necessary to watch integrity of cords and to connect tools only to the isolated sockets and extenders. For acquisition of necessary skills of the technology of work with electric tools it is necessary to observe work of the specialist and to execute several simplest operations under its supervision.

COMMENTS
  1. Sergey

    thanks. very interestingly.

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  2. TOO SERGEY

    thanks helped

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  3. Sergey

    Administrator! To steam of phrases:
    1. You in the right direction. There are more of us beginners and fans.
    2. The request — messages the heading in the form of lessons for beginners and "teapots".
    3. And articles, really, very good.

    To answer
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