Possible malfunctions of fluorescent lamps
Fluorescent lamps belong to gas discharge tubes of low pressure. They can be the different form: direct tubular, figured and compact (KLL). Luminescent lamps on the design it is much more difficult, than lamps with glow lamps, and they have much more malfunctions. Standard malfunctions and ways of their elimination are given in the table below.
Tubular lamps have the two-pin types of socles differing in distance between pins: G-13 (distance - 13 mm) for lamps with a diameter of 40 mm and 26 mm and G-5 (distance - 5 mm) for lamps with a diameter of 16 mm.
The feature of the device of compact fluorescent lamps is that the tube becomes the special form for reduction of length of the lamp. Many compact fluorescent lamps of small power (up to 20 W) are intended for replacement of glow lamps and designed so that can be screwed in the threaded cartridge directly or via the adapter. Compact fluorescent lamps can be different forms, can be with the electronic puskoreguliruyushchy device (EPRA) and different length.
Fluorescent lamps demand for operation of the special device - the puskoreguliruyushchy device (throttle). The majority of foreign lamps can work as with normal (with the throttle), and with electronic puskoreguliruyushchy devices (EPRA). But some of them are intended only for one type of PRA.
Lamps with EPRA have the following advantages: the lamp does not flicker, is better lit, does not rustle (noise from the throttle), it is easier on weight, saves the electric power (power losses in EPRA much lower, than in PRA).
Advantages: in comparison with glow lamps, they more economic also are more durable, possess good svetoperedachy. Service life till 10000 o'clock at import lamps and till 5000-8000 o'clock at domestic. It is convenient to use where light burns many hours.
Shortcomings: at the temperature below 5 degrees are hard lit and can burn more dimly.
Changing types of the phosphor, it is possible to change color characteristics of lamps. The letters entering the name of types of such lamps mean: L - luminescent, B - white chromaticity, TB - warm-white, D - day chromaticity, C - with the improved color rendition. Digits 18, 20, 36, 40, 65, 80 designate rated power in watts. For example, LDTs-18 - the lamp luminescent, day, with the improved color rendition, 18 W.
The lamp works with fluorescent lamps as follows. The tubular lamp is filled with argon and vapors of mercury. The starter is necessary for start-up of the lamp, it is necessary to warm up electrodes for a short time. The current flowing through the throttle and the starter considerably increases, heats the bimetallic plate of the starter. Electrodes of the lamp get warm, the contact of the starter is disconnected, the circuit current decreases, on the throttle short-term big tension is formed. Its stored energy is enough for punching gas in the lamp flask. Further current goes through the throttle and the lamp, at the same time 110 Volts fall on the throttle, and 110 Volts on the lamp. Mercury vapors by means of the phosphor create the luminescence perceived by the eye of the person.
The throttle almost does not consume energy. It almost completely returns energy which it takes at magnetization at demagnetization, at the same time is useless wires are loaded. To unload network, the condenser C is used. Energy exchange happens not between network and the throttle, and between the throttle and the condenser. Availability of the condenser increases lamp efficiency, without it with an efficiency of lamp of 50-60%, with the condenser C - 95%. The condenser which is connected parallel to the starter is used for protection against radio interferences.
Fault of the luminescent lamp can consist in violation of the electrical link in the scheme of the lamp or in failure of one of lamp elements. Reliability of contacts is checked by visual survey and check by the tester.
The operability of the lamp or the puskoreguliruyushchy equipment is checked by consecutive replacement of all elements by obviously operational.Top