General information on electroirons
Sounding of the words "electric iron" causes bewilderment – there are no not electric irons. Still the coal iron was rather recently widely used. It was similar to the small iron box in which core the warmed coals were filled. Intensively waved this box with the handle in different directions that coals were warmed and began to create heat for ironing of linen. Long such iron as you understand, you will not work as coals have feature to cool down. The revolutionary revolution in the history took place when connected the iron body of the iron to the electric heating coil. Here since those immemorial times the iron also became the electric household appliance.
Labor-intensive processes of work in the household are washing and ironing of linen. Apply different types of electric irons to ironing of linen. At the moment in the market offer in wide assortment several types of irons at once. They differ as processing which is required for this or that fabric. Irons of three types are issued: without heating attemperation, with the temperature regulator, with the temperature regulator and the humidifier. Also electric irons are issued according to GOST 307-69. They are intended for work from the single-phase alternating current main of 127 or 220 Century.
For obtaining heat in electric irons and in many heating devices, the wire having high resistance (usually nikhromovy) is used. The wire is often reeled up in the form of the spiral. Sometimes as heating elements the flat elements executed from the nikhromovy wire which is reeled up on the plate from insulating material are used (ceramics, multilayer mica plates, etc.). To create more high temperature, heating elements are carried out in the form of rods as them it is possible to arrange closer to the heating surface. Such heating element is located in the center of the hollow metal tube, between it and walls of the tube there is the cover from insulating material. Edges of the tube are hermetic therefore effect of moisture and air does not cause damage of elements. After the tube is sealed, it is given the necessary form.
When passing electric current on the conductor heat is generated – it heats up. With increase in size of current heating of the conductor increases in square dependence. If current increases twice, heating of the conductor increases four times.
Advantages of the electroheating iron before others, earlier used, are well-known. These are, first of all, small dimensions, ease, lack of harmful impurity when burning, purity of the workplace.
The sole of the device is made of aluminum, but can be also made and of cast iron. The sole is equipped with TENG, and then together with the temperature regulator is fixed on the body. The operability of the tubular electric heater is controlled by the signal lamp. If the electric heater heated up to that temperature which is necessary to the consumer and is ready to work, then the bulb just dies away.
The Nikhromovy spiral and TEN work in parallel, and the signal lamp consumes 3,5 B from voltage drop on rather small site of the spiral.
In order that TEN cooled down, the chain consisting from heating up from the plate device sole (made from two metals) is broken off, it is curved and begins to wring out the contact plate because of the difference of thermal expansion coefficients.
And here that TEN earned again, there is the following: the bimetallic plate is curved when cooling, thereby releasing the contact plate.
The characteristic of this or that iron can be defined instantly if to be able to read and understand attentively the label, the passport or the annex to the electric device.
For certain each buyer at least once in life, faced such problem as misunderstanding of what is written in the passport of the device. There is a wish to update the iron, but you do not know what model to choose. You look in the application, and there unclear letters, digits and words. What do they designate? Everything is very simple!
Legends or reductions:
- The iron with the temperature regulator is designated just UT.
- The model with the temperature regulator and the steam humidifier will be designated by three capital letters – the unique selling proposition.
- If also the sprayer is added, on the label it is necessary to look for designation – UTPR.
- The iron weighted will be just designated by UTU, in addition it is equipped with the temperature regulator.
Now, when with letters all is more or less clear, the turn of digits which follow after them came. They also designate the power and mass of the iron. For example, in the application there is designation unique selling proposition 1000-2,0. This designation so – the iron with the temperature regulator equipped with the steam humidifier, the power consumption of 1 kW, and mass of the device of 2 kg is transferred.
From what mass of the device, it is possible to learn warming up time. For example, the irons weighted are considered the most hard warmed. Their warming up requires nearly 8 min.
If the rated voltage, the lower working part (sole) of the iron without temperature regulator heats up to temperature of 200 in 12-15 min. Such irons have the number of shortcomings in comparison with the irons having the temperature regulator (big mass, slow heating, the bigger expense of the electric power).
Time of heating of irons with the temperature regulator is 2,5-3 min. They are convenient, easy and economic, more productive and fireproof. Necessary temperature is established on the scale by the temperature regulator lever. The iron temperature regulator automatically maintains continuous temperature necessary for ironing of certain types of fabrics on the sole. As temperature regulators usually serve the bimetallic elements placed in the heating device. The bimetallic element plays the role of the automatic cut connected consistently to the heating element. When the heating element becomes hot, it gives heat heating the bimetallic element. The bimetallic strip disconnects contact and breaks off the chain. When cooling the heating element its temperature decreases, the bimetallic strip is narrowed and becomes straight. The electric circuit becomes isolated – the heating element generates heat again.
In addition to irons with the temperature regulator irons with the temperature regulator and the steam humidifier are issued. Availability of the steam humidifier expands possibilities of use of the iron, allows to iron fabrics without preliminary moistening. In such irons apply humidifiers of drop type. For the water necessary for steam formation in the iron, there is the tank with a capacity from 100 to 150 cm ³, it is the valve. In the sole of the iron there is the paroobrazuyushchy compartment. At installation of the paroregulyator in the provision "Couples" the water which is filled in in the tank drops comes to the evaporating camera, evaporating, comes out sole openings, saturating the ferry the smoothed material. Time of the beginning of steam formation does not exceed 4 min. The water supply provides the evaporation mode not less than 20 min. The intensity of evaporation is not less than 5 g/min. The size of leakage of current in irons no more than 0,5 mA at installation of the handle of the temperature regulator on the upper step of heating. The roughness of the sole of the iron is not lower than 8 C. purity. The sole of irons from cast iron is usually chromeplated. Length of the parch cord of the iron is equal to 2 m.
The body of such model does not slide when ironing by all sole, it adjoins to fabric in several points, thereby reducing heating of the body from the sole.
In irons use the following heating elements: wire spiral with the porcelain beads which is put on them; tubular built in or filled in in the iron sole; lamellar in the form of the nikhromovy or fekhralevy wire (or tapes) which is reeled up on mica or micanite.
At turning on of the cold iron in network the signal lamp lights up – the chain of the heating element is closed. Extinction of the lamp indicates that your device is ready to work. Further turning on and switching off of the signal lamp characterize normal operation of the iron.
For operational indicators of the iron basic meaning in that how many it develops heat and whether it is possible to regulate this heat. Irons with the temperature regulator have this advantage. They are convenient, easy and economic, more productive and fireproof, than irons without temperature regulators. These irons reduce warming up time from 15-20 min. to 3-8 min. Power saving is increased by 10-15%, and the labor productivity increases by 40-60%. Advantages are as well that these irons prevent the possibility of the opalivaniye and melting of fabrics that it is especially important now when the large amount of synthetic fibers for which ironing it is necessary to observe temperature condition strictly is produced.
The temperature regulator of the device will maintain temperature necessary to you automatically throughout all ironing of linen.
Irons with the temperature regulator have the scale of names: capron, silk, wool, cotton, linen. Maximum temperature (°C) in the center of the sole of irons at installation of the handle of the regulator on the scale of the name of fabric is in limits:
- viscose, jersey, marquisette, batiste – 85-115;
- capron – 80-110;
- silk – 140-160;
- wool – 160-180;
- cotton – 180-200;
- flax – 200-240.
Specifications of some types of irons.
Irons without temperature regulators consume power ranging from 320 W up to 400 W. Rated voltage – from 127 V to 220 V. Tip of the heating element – spiral. Weight in kilograms from 2, 1 to 3,0.
Irons with temperature regulators. Consume power from 200 to 1000 W. Rated voltage from 127 to 220 V. Tip of the heating element – tubular and spiral. Weight in kilograms – from 0,65 to 2,55.
Irons with the temperature regulator and the humidifier. Power consumption – 750-1000 W. Rated voltage – 127-220 V. Tip of the heating element – tubular. Tank capacity for water – 100 - 200 cm ³. Weight – 1,5-2,0 kg.
Irons without temperature regulators have some shortcomings: the iron heats up much more slowly. The expense of the electric power is more. Because of low power the iron is quickly cooled when ironing.
- If when ironing you slightly singed material, wet the spot solution of boric acid, then rinse in water of room temperature.
- Spots on white fabrics move away from the hot iron the mix consisting of 0,5 Art. of water and several drops of liquid ammonia.
- Folds on trousers remain longer if to wipe them from the reverse with the soap piece, and then to iron through wet fabric.
- That the iron did not stick to linen, its warmed-up sole is wiped with paraffin.
Legends of irons with the indication of admissible temperature of ironing.
- The iron with the indication of temperature. Interpretation: the care when ironing, is specified the allowed ironing temperature.
- The iron with the temperature regulator legend points: with one, two, three points. Interpretation of the legend: ironing at the regulator installed on the maximum temperature (three points) for cotton, linen is allowed. Average temperature (two points) – for wool, natural silk. Minimum temperature (one point) – for artificial silk.
- The iron is crossed out. It means that ironing by the iron is forbidden.
- The iron in the circle. The legend designates that care when ironing to iron at the temperature not above 140 °C.
- The iron with the asterisk. Designates care when ironing, to iron at the temperature not above 100 °C.