How to give first aid at defeat by electric current?
Release from electric current
At hit of the person under tension, it is necessary to disconnect immediately the elektroyoustanovka by means of the switch, the breaker, safety locks, etc.
If it is impossible, then it is necessary to cut or chop wires (in installations up to 1000 V), previously reliably having isolated itself. The transmission line in this case can be closed, having outlined on it the wire connected to the earth.
If current cannot be disconnected, then it is necessary to delay postrayodavshy from the current carrying part. As it is in the current circuit, it is impossible to touch it with uninsulated hands. It is previously reliable to Sleyoduyet to isolate itself rubber peryochatka, dry woolen fabric, etc. In electric units over 1000 V it is necessary to put on dielectric peryochatka and boats, only then to delay the victim the isolating bars or pincers intended for this tension. Podyoruchny means to use inadmissibly.
After release from current the victim needs to give first aid: to lay, provide rest, heat, the priyotok of fresh air. In all cases it is necessary to call the doctor immediately.
If after release from current the victim breathes seldom and convulsively, with sobbing or there are no breath and pulse, then it is necessary to begin immediately artificial dykhayony and the closed (indirect) massage of heart. Both of these measures are absoyolyutno necessary. Even in the absence of signs of life poyostradavshy it is impossible to consider the dead. It is in the condition of clinical death when the person can be returned to life as there lasts oxygen reserve in the organism for 4 — 8 min. If during this time not to begin the procedure of revival, then the person will deystviyotelno die owing to irreversible biological death. The Efyofektivnost of the rendered help to a large extent depends on that, how fast started first-aid treatment.
Before artificial the dykhayoniya it is necessary to make airways passable for air. For this purpose open the victim's mouth, clean it from slime, removable dentures take out. Then zaprokidyyovat the head back to the full, enclosing one hand under the neck, and another, pressing on the forehead. The language 1 root at the same time departs from the back wall of the throat 2, opening free access of air in lungs 3 (fig. 1 and, b). If to squeeze the mouth of the victim, then he should be revealed. For this purpose it is necessary or to put forward the lower jaw, or between molars to insert flat predyomt and with its help to unclench jaws.
Artificial respiration by method "from the mouth in the mouth" is that helping directly exhales air (more than 1 l) from the lungs in the victim's lungs. This air contains 17% of oxygen that it is quite enough for revival.
Artificial respiration is carried out in the following order. Supporting the head in the thrown-back state (the mouth of postradavyoshy is open), clamp nostrils big and indicative palyyoets of that hand which lies on the forehead. Then, having deeply inhaled air, press the mouth to the open mouth of the victim (it is possible through the gauze or the scarf) and sharply exhale in it air (fig. 1 in). At the same time the breast of the victim has to rise.
The exhalation at the victim will occur thanks to recession of the thorax. In the minute do 10 — 12 such breaths - exhalations.
During artificial respiration it is necessary to watch for liyotsy the victim: if he moves lips, centuries, will make the glotatelny movement, it is necessary to check whether he will begin to breathe independently and evenly. In this case the artificial dyyokhaniye should be suspended. If it turns out that postradavyoshiya do not breathe, then artificial respiration vozobnoyovlyatsya immediately.
Indirect massage of heart
At absence at affected pulse along with artificial respiration it is necessary to proizvoyodit the closed (indirect) massage of heart. The essence of this method is that by means of rhythmical (1 time in 1 c) sdayovlivaniye of heart 1 between the breast 2 and the backbone 3 is possible to push out blood in large vessels and by that to recover blood circulation (fig. 2 and). When pressure upon the breast prekrayoshchatsya and it becomes straight, heart is filled with blood again. Rhythmical squeezing stimulates independent work of heart. In the state of shock of the muscle of the body are weakened, in the rezulyyotata of what breast shift on 4 — 5 cm towards the poyozvonochnik is possible. At the healthy person of it it is impossible to make.
The closed (indirect) massage of heart is carried out in the sleduyoyushchy sequence. The victim is put on the rigid surface as soft will amortize pushes. It is very important to define correctly the place on which it is necessary to press: 2 fingers higher than the end of the breast (fig. 2). Having put the lower part of the palm of one hand on this place, the second should be put on it at right angle (fig. 2 and). Fingers do not touch the grudyony cage. It is necessary to press on the breast the fast push of such force to displace it on 4 — 5 cm. After each nadavliyovaniye it is necessary to take away hands from the thorax not to interfere it with free straightening. It favors to inflow of blood from veins to heart. It is impossible to press on the upper of the breast, edge, soft fabrics (liver) as they can be povreyodit. Frequency of pressings — 1 times a second. If okazyvayoyushchiya the help has no assistant, then he does 15 pressings, and then 2-3 deep inflations.
For check of stability of pulse massage is interrupted on 2-3 pages. If pulse remains then warm activity was recovered. Disappearance of pulse indicates availability of fibrillation of heart. In this case massage of heart is immediately voyozobnovlyat and continue to carry out it before arrival of the doctor or delivery of the victim in medical institution (in way prodolyozhat to help the victim continuously).
The doctor stops fibrillation by means of the defibyorillyator. Through the thorax quickly (0,01 c) the impulse of current of 5-6 kV proyopuskatsya. This current propuyoskatsya through 2 electrodes, one of which is imposed on the breast in heart, and the second — on the back under the left shoulder-blade. The short-term impulse of current tears off chaotic podergiyovaniye of fibers of the cardiac muscle, and heart begins to be reduced rhythmically.
If it is helped timely (i.e. immediately) and it is correct, then pupils at the victim are narrowed (the most efyofektivny indicator of revival), skin slightly turns pink, and at each pressing on the thorax pulse on the carotid is probed.Top