Rolling bearings: general information


General information about rolling bearings

Classification of rolling bearings

Rolling bearings are separated into radial bearings and persistent bearings.

Схема подшипникового узла

Scheme of the bearing node.

Further depending on swing elements bearings are separated into the ball-bearings and roller bearings in more detail classified depending on the difference in their design or the specific purpose.

Radial bearings:

  1. Ball-bearings.
  2. Radial ball-bearings.
  3. Radial-stop ball-bearings.
  4. Bearings from three - and the four-point contact.
  5. The self-installed ball-bearings.
  6. Ball-bearings for bearing nodes.
  7. Magnetic bearings.
  8. Roller bearings.

Cylindrical roller bearings:

  1. Needle roller bearings.
  2. Bearings with long rollers.
  3. Conic roller bearings.
  4. Spherical roller bearings.

Persistent bearings:

  1. Ball-bearings.
  2. Persistent ball-bearings.
  3. Persistent and radial ball-bearings.

Roller bearings:

Схема устройства буксы с роликовыми подшипниками

The scheme of the device of the axle box with roller bearings.

  1. Cylindrical upornyerolikopodshipnik.
  2. Needle persistent roller bearings.
  3. Conic persistent roller bearings.
  4. Spherical persistent roller bearings.

Special bearings:

  1. Automobile bearings for couplings.
  2. Automobile bearings for water pumps.
  3. Railway axle-box bearings.
  4. Bearings of rope sheaves of cranes.
  5. Basic and rotary devices.
  6. Bearings for chain conveyors.

Mekhatronny bearings — the kind of bearings with the built-in electronic part (special sensors and the enkoder). It is applied since the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century.
Depending on combinations of different sensors distinguish three generations of mekhatronny bearings:

Such bearings find the application in automotive industry and the industry.

The first mekhatronny development which was widely adopted became the ASB® bearing (Active Sensor Bearing) of SNR which represents the automobile felloe bearing with the integrated speed sensor.

The main advantages of the ASB® bearing are:

Service of bearings

Схемы крепления подшипников

Schemes of fastening of bearings.

For the purpose of the maximum increase in service life, prevention of mechanical damages, ensuring no-failure operation it is necessary to examine periodically bearings and to control operating conditions.

Service of bearings needs to be carried out regularly, considering operating conditions of bearings in the equipment. It is necessary to sort and examine periodically the equipment, to fill up or replace lubricant and to control operating conditions of bearings. Considering properties of lubricant, it is necessary to check compliance of characteristics of lubricant to working temperatures. During determination of terms of replacement of bearings and intervals of replenishment of lubricant it is necessary to consider vibrations and noise in bearings. At survey of bearings during scheduled works it is required to check racetracks regarding damages.

Some reasons of malfunctions of bearings are included below and measures for their elimination are proposed.

Noise during the operation of the bearing

Loud metal sound. Probable causes:

Constant loud sound. Probable causes:

Схема опорного подшипника качения

Scheme of the basic rolling bearing.

Discontinuous sound. Probable causes:

Abnormal temperature increase

Probable causes:

Vibrations (axial beating)

Probable causes:

Leak or decolouration of lubricant

Probable causes:

Bearings – general information to Look or download in the PDF format

History of emergence of bearings

Primitive prototypes of the modern bearing simplified human life already many thousands years ago. Knew about existence of friction of people since the most ancient times.

The fact that the primitive person extracted fire quickly demonstrates to it rotating the stick, that is already then used the friction method, and began to cut fire by means of blows of one stone about another later (used transition of kinetic energy of friction to thermal). It also played the major role in the history of emergence of the bearing and its further improvement.

The very first primitive bearings of sliding were for the first time found in excavation, belonging to the Neolithic era. During this period people began to master friction action, seized ability to drill openings in the stone. So-called "bearings" were manufactured of the stone and used in different spinning spindles and drilling devices. Began to be used in different elementary simplest designs later - mill stones, the potter's wheel, the chariot, the bullock cart. To the invention of the wheel people moved the load on sledge in which harnessed people or animals.

Before the rolling bearing reached the form similar on modern, it passed the set of different stages of improvement. Till 2nd century BC for transportation of loads used ordinary logs (so-called rollers) which, by the way, still use for transportation of very heavy objects today.

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