Electric power sources
In this article we will talk about how receive electricity.
The main and, perhaps, the most important part of any power plant giving the electric power , of course, is the electric generator. This electric device is capable to turn mechanical work into electricity. Externally it is similar to the normal electric motor and inside slightly differs.
The basic principle of action and operation of the electric generator are based on Faraday law of induction of Faraday. Two conditions are necessary for development of EMF. First, it is the contour in the form of the copper winding and availability of the magnetic flux which is, as a rule, created by the normal magnet or the additional winding.
Thus, in order that appeared desirable EMF at the electric generator exit, it is necessary to set in motion the magnet or the winding rather each other. The magnetic flux, having passed through the contour, as a result also creates electricity. And rotational speed directly influences the size of the developed tension. Now, having the idea of the electric generator, we only need to find the source of the movement for it, that is electric power sources.
In 1882 the great scientist Thomas Edison started the first-ever thermal power station (TPS) working on the steam engine. At that time the steam engine was the best device for creation of the movement of the engine and the production machine.
Of course, the power plant worked together too. When heating water in the boiler high-pressure vapor which moved on blades of the turbine or the cylinder with the piston is formed, thereby pushing it, as a result making mechanical motion due to water heating. As fuel usually use coal, fuel oil, natural gas, peat - in a word, what well burns.
Hydroelectric power stations are the special constructions constructed on places of falling of the river and using its energy for rotation of the electric generator. Perhaps, it is the most harmless way of receiving the electric power as there is no combustion of fuel and emergence of harmful waste.
Nuclear power stations - in principle, are very similar on thermal, the difference only that they in combined heat and power plant use combustible fuel for heating of water and receiving steam, and in the NPP is the source of heating heat generated at nuclear reaction. In the reactor there is the radioactive material, as a rule, uranium which at the disintegration marks out the large amount of warmth and by that heats the boiler with water with the subsequent release of steam for rotation of the turbine and the electric generator.
On the one hand, nuclear power stations very favorable as at the small quantity substances are capable to give a lot of energy. But not everything is so cloudless. Though the NPP also provides high degree of safety, nevertheless there are also fatal flaws as the Chernobyl NPP. And after working off of nuclear fuel waste remains, and they cannot be utilized.
Also there is the big set and much less used electric power sources, unlike the main. These are, for example, wind electric generators which turn normal wind force directly into electric current.
Recently solar batteries gain very great popularity. Their work is based on transformation of sunshine of the sun, to be exact, of its photons. The photo cell consists of two laminas of semiconductor material, at hit in border of contact of two semiconductors of solar radiation there is the EMF which can give afterwards electric current on the output electrodes.Top