What is information?
Information in the standard definition are the data, messages transferred from one subject to another oral, written or otherwise (for example, by means of prearranged signals, with use of technical means, etc.) and also process of transfer or obtaining these data or information exchange.
Another, generalizing definition of information as universal property of matter, is less known. Information is
the non-material category of the Universe coded in material carriers and when decoding and adequate reactivity the denying probability in statistical processes of transition from disorder to the order; or, as it is accepted to speak in physics, information is the entropy with the return sign, or negative entropy.
However as the non-material category information with destruction of the carrier either disappears, or will be recoded. New information arises only in accidental processes of creation of the new carrier. Accidental process is the set of accidental events which probability is extremely small, and the probability of creation of the new carrier is less, the quality of the reproduced information is higher. Natural Selection works with such processes.
Selection of consistent arguments or synthesis - only data, messages, temporary set of knowledge of the subject (subjects). Temporary lifelong in sense. With destruction of the carrier all information - as arisen at the birth, and acquired in ontogenesis disappears. Again arisen parent information can be saved only with the birth of the new carrier.
The more the volume of the cumulative knowledge of the subject acquired in ontogenesis (temporary) the more arises at it the common ground with the unknown, the associative field of imagination is wider, the emotional heat is deeper, the probability of decoding of the objective information from the inspected carrier is higher. From here it is obvious that at this stage of development of society access to the objective information, or, more precisely, than information on objective reality, for us is very limited. Thus, it is possible to speak about information and Information as about two mutually enclosed concepts.
The entropy is deeply specific physical quantity with dimension кал / the hail which always more than zero, i.e. is positive that physically is understood as the law of transition of heat from hotter body to cold. But, as well as for the concept "information", the entropy is defined by the term one more concept, namely - its expression by communication with the statistical concept of transition from disorder to the order that is also poorly studied, as well as the concept "information", though is expressed by the single quantitative bond opened still by Boltzmann and Gibbs in 1872:
Entropy of =k · lgD, where:
- D are also the quantitative index of this disorder of the atomic and molecular movement in substance;
- and k – Boltzmann constant = 1,3807×10-23 J / To.
Proceeding from definition of the concept of Information as entropy with the return sign, obviously, there are in the Universe uncontrollable, more precisely, self-governed processes allowing to take Information without decoding, or that the same, the processes allowing to carry out the return transition of heat from the cold body to hotter. Such self-governed processes happen constantly around us, this self-reproduction of life, i.e. extraction of Information without decoding at reproduction similar.
From the point of view of the physicist obviously that live organisms, as well as all in the Universe that cools down, continuously change the entropy, or make disorder and thus approach the condition of the minimum entropy, the condition of "absolute zero" of ambient temperature that represents "thermal death" of the organism, and the speed of change of entropy is approximately equal to the speed of cooling of the teapot - depending on temperature of the environment and body weight of the organism. They can avoid "cooling", i.e. remain live, only constantly taking heat from the environment or negative entropy as the normal household refrigerator, consuming the electric power, takes heat in the closed volume from colder body. And life, consuming the energy which is contained in food maintains in itself homeostasis temperature (+36,6ºС for the sake of appearances homo erectus). Bacteria at the end of the feeder chain take negative entropy from broth, transferring it to soluble compounds which plants eat, taking positive entropy of the Sun.
In other words, processes of exchange in the organism lead to increase of entropy, and self-regulation of these processes or the homeostasis reduce it. And the closer to zero the balance of positive and negative entropy, the is higher survival of the organism, the quality of natural selection is higher. Negative entropy is that organisms are taken from the environment (the difference between temperature of the environment and temperature of own body) for maintenance of the homeostasis (stability of the internal environment) and the comfort. Life in the Universe, from the point of view of physics, is the constant, continuous extraction of entropy with the return sign.
Life is only adaptation to environmental conditions, initially immanent Information as fundamental property of matter. The carrier of such Information is double-helix, closed (according to Möbius) stable nuclear RNA as the Universe micromodel brought on this planet with ice of some asteroid when on it there was no atmosphere yet.
Here is how K.Yu. Eskov in "Stories of Earth and Life on it" considers this problem: "Our approach to the life problem on Earth will be especially functional, and in its framework we should accept one axiomatic statement: evolution of the biosphere and the ecosystems making it goes in general towards emergence more and more perfect, i.e. steady and economical (taking negative entropy with the minimum expenses), circulations of substance and energy. Improvement of cycles is directed to minimizing irrevocable losses of biological systems: the ecosystem aims to interfere with washing away of microelements and burial of unoxidized carbon, to translate water from the surface drain in underground, etc. Therefore from the all-planetary point of view life should be considered as the way of stabilization of the geochemical cycles existing on the planet".
However the valid essence of this concept is not in romantic interplanetary wanderings of "life germs" at all, and that life per se just is one of fundamental properties of matter, and the question of origin of life costs in the same row, as, for example, the question of origin of gravitation (but it does not mean at all that we will cease to ask these questions especially as these phenomena - "one of fundamental properties of matter").
"In this plan Eygen's predecessor is the biochemist Mr. Kastler (1966) who analyzed behavior of system of nucleic acids within the information theory. He came to the conclusion that new information arises in system, only if in it there is random sampling ("at random") to the subsequent storing of its results, but not purposeful selection of the best option. In the latter case it is possible to speak only about implementation of that information that it is put in system initially, that is about allocation of already available information from "noise" (or its decoding).
The possibility of novelty (i.e. the act of creativity) is defined by properties of information per se: as it was shown by A.A. Lyapunov (1965), conservation laws, i.e. information, unlike matter and energy do not extend to it, it can be newly created (and, respectively, can be and it is irrevocably lost.)"
Here it is necessary to allocate two components of uniform process of emergence of information on laws of natural selection: creation of hindrances with necessary and sufficient conditions for reduction of probability of the event and its repeatability for the "accidental" choice, or in terms of the information theory - allocation of already available information in the ecosystem from "noise". The case and copulation - cognate words, and accident of any birth are, first of all, allocation from hindrances of the useful information which is already available in the ecosystem or "purposeful selection of the best option" . "On that and the pike in the sea that the crucian did not doze". But this useful information is not inherited (see below the mutation and boundary conditions).
What is criterion of quality of Natural Selection or what information is useful?
Natural Selection has no other tool for improvement of the creations, except statistical throwing of bones or "the method of the tyk" where behind each throw - the birth and death, and the frequency of alternation of generations is higher (or quantity of throws of the births death for the conventional unit of time determined by body weight, more precisely, the power consumption spent for its cultivation), the speed of exchange of the gene pool is higher, subjects more advantages are shown in trans-species fight, that the specific ecological niche is wider and the quality of Natural Selection is higher.
However the speed of exchange of the gene pool can be increased not only the frequency of alternation of generations, but also due to quantity of individuals in one dung (for example, fishes, insects).
Therefore criterion of quality at Natural Selection the most primitive, the most rigid and therefore the most reliable: population biomass increment. The more population biomass, the is higher the frequency of alternation of generations or throws of the births death, the quality of Selection is higher than subjects.
However this statistical law of selection conflicts to the law of minimization of power consumption on cultivation of the separate "experimental" individual that not for nothing it devastated the ecological niche. This contradiction is allowed by the same selection, but only at the seed level. For plants, for example, there is also no different way of improvement of the look. From there is the important investigation.
For achievement of the highest efficiency of the mechanism of selection at the level of the seed at mammals adaptation on the basis of the monogamy - pair family is inevitable that for a long time primacies, wolves, elephants understood. That death of millions of spermatozoa from one portion of the eyakulyat on the way to uterine egg was not aimless, in the organism of the female the mechanism preserving the adaptation information collected by the male in fight against hindrances has to be, to be obliged.
Therefore the male has almost three-day updating of the seed material accumulating information on changes of the environment (the arising hindrances) and reactions of the organism of the male to them, and in ovaries of the female there is the preservation of this information after each koitus and transfer to its each egg germ at the ovulation. The matter is that in the female body from the birth the limited, irreplaceable number of egg germs is put. Count number of lunar months in the interval of years between 13 and 45-49, and you receive this number of egg germs: about 350-400 pieces. As at the weed chicken. In the male body generation of the eyakulyat does not run low till the last o'clock.
From there is very important investigation. It is prohibition on illegitimate communications for increase in productivity of pair family and improvement of quality of its posterity. It is also selection of useful information. The female body at fornication accumulates the distortions brought by the alien eyakulyat both physiological and mental, and men's - empty spends the gene material and the saved-up vital useful information.
So, the there is more seed in the one-time portion of the eyakulyat at the koitus and the requirement of the koitus is more often, the quality of Natural Selection is higher. At mammals selection begins at the movement of products of the eyakulyat on uterine tubes where for the sake of "prosperita" of one "publicity" of the big state, about 250 million perishes. And advantage before others has that appearance or that family which has more perfect mechanism for natural selection at the level of the seed.
This mechanism at us and our evolutionary ancestors is accelerated by twelve times in comparison with other animals and primacies, for pairing expecting seasonal preparation of the food supply for feeding of posterity. Also we pay a high price for this improvement - the accelerated wear of the female body and its genital function. 40-45 years - and the climax. It in the present, and for the ancestral monkey - is even less. And it at the expected average duration of biological activity for the average weight of 75-80 kg about 130 years.
In what way there could be the family of primacies at whom terms of the ovulation of uterine egg became dependent not on the solar annual cycle, and from lunar, monthly as well as under what conditions such transformation of the most difficult mechanism of reproduction became possible, - for us the secret. But it not divine providence.
The only plausible guess - all-weather independence of the food supply of the chetveroruky uzkonosy monkey who mastered the fruit tier of the rainforest. Behind the same seasonal independence of the fruit food supply there is also the absence in our organism the mechanism of production of ascorbic acid (and human interferon). All animals are able to produce vitamin C (and are not able - interferon). Everything, except the person, the pink tropical starling and the guinea pig. And why our ancestral monkey needed this mechanism if ascorbic acid all-weather arrives from the outside with the forage and stimulates development of the most perfect antibiotic - interferon?
But why after all the twelve-monthly menstrual cycle and always in the same phase of the Moon - full moons? It can mean that "tidal" operation of the satellite of our planet once was stronger, than now. And this "tidal" action of the Moon defined adaptation influence on genital function of some species of the monkeys who became our ancestors.
So, the only criterion of quality of natural selection put in the genome is the population biomass increment. And increase in its quality is possible only at reduction of probability of the event of replication of the new organism or availability of hindrances, necessary and sufficient conditions of reduction of probability of replication.
For example, the insect earth cancer, the medvedka, the cabbage white butterfly copulates only in the June full moon (the summer solstice) and only in flight; moles copulate on the surface, the salmon to sweep aside caviar, has to enter the mouth only of the river, break through the dense barrier of "eaters" on the way to sources and, отметавшись, fall the decaying flesh - the forage for the posterity bearing the genetic memory of sources of the river; the man in the only woman looks for the mother, and the woman in the man – the father; all males pass through the ceremony of marriage fight, the lot, the wedding = destinies: cf. "promised" and a weight more of examples … Especially exceptional children in USA are marked out by the saying: "Neither in mother, nor in the father, and in the passable good fellow".
However it is not obligatory at all that excess creativity will always lead to allocation of useful information from hindrances - to emergence of posterity.
It is thought that A.A. Lyapunov is not mistaken here. This fundamental property of information is the cornerstone of laws of the biogenesis of the planet and Natural Selection and if it was not so, then it would be simpler to call Information god. Information with destruction of the carrier disappears or will be recoded, but can be created from the combination of accidental processes, and unreliable biochemical, but also purely physical where the accident is the event which probability is defined by the quantitative index of disorder of the atomic and molecular movement in substance of D of Boltsmana-Gibbs's law. It for processes physical.
For processes biological with which Natural Selection works the indicator of disorder is the quantity of the spermatozoa spent for one turnover of generation of one couple, divided into the total number of the individuals who are given rise and survivors from that couple. For the sake of appearances homo erectus the optimum maintenance of spermatozoa in the portion of the eyakulyat - 180-250 million. Content less than 150 million is called oligospermiy at which conception is excluded.
If you increase this quantity of spermatozoa by the median number of pairings of one couple for the term of genital function of the female and separate received on the number of the survivor of polovozrely generation, then the reciprocal value of this number will show probability of allocation of useful information from "noise" of the ecosystem for this couple. It for ideal couple excluding the fornication reducing quality of information.
Thus, anthropogenesis needs to be considered as continuous improvement of quality of the immanent information put in the genome of the ancestral form of the primacy. And only for the sake of appearances homo erectus the frequency of alternation of generations is 12 times higher, than at other types, i.e. female regula also are the main and only anthropomorphous sign which determines the speed and quality of anthropogenesis.
Only important, true values in our life, its contents and sense - chastity of the woman, honor of the man, their joint love to the children. It is family. Mutual respect between families and to old men. It is the Homeland. Love for the country and protection it. This state.
Protect the woman, the, unique half! Chastity of the woman - the statehood basis. Only chaste mother can grow up the builder and the defender of the Homeland.
Information, as well as life, is fundamental property of matter, and some individual life with the certain volume of information data, but not Life as immanent property of the Universe can be lost.
It is possible to calculate the quantitative index of disorder for unit of mass of any substance defining accident - the numerical size of probability of events in system at which emergence of new information is possible.
lgD = Entropy/k
Or by the offered technique to calculate probability of emergence of new information for Natural Selection. And the this probability is lower, the quality of Natural Selection is higher, the quality of the selected information is higher.
The second component of uniform process of emergence of information - overflow of the ecosystem hindrances at which allocation of information on criterion of the increment of biomass becomes impossible that leads to death of the ecosystem and degeneration of the look or to mutagen explosion. Here, probably, it is necessary to enter very important boundary conditions after all. Actually, they needed to be entered for a long time, and they were meant in the previous reasonings since. Natural selection works with new information only at its intermittent changes.
Selection does not set qualitative results at continuous changes of hereditary information because they are not inherited as specific signs at allocation of information from noise therefore all attempts to find certain "intermediate forms" between types are doomed to the failure. Continuous changes of hereditary information in the look - that hereditary "noise" of system at "purposeful selection of the best option".
Gugo de Friz (Hugo de Vries, 1848 — 1935) is the botanist from Holland on the wrong example of Oenothera lamarckiana, developing the Darvinian theory of the origin of species, proved that the new look - not result of gradual accumulation of continuous changes of the phenotype according to the synthetic theory of evolution (STE), and result of the intermittent changes (during several generations) turning one look into another.
"Expression means intermittent in this case not that changes are very considerable but only the intermittence fact as between not changed individuals and the few changed there are no intermediate forms. De Friz called it the mutation. Here the intermittence is essential. She reminds the physicist the quantum theory — there intermediate steps between two next energy levels of atom are not observed too. The physicist would be inclined the mutational theory of de Friz figuratively to call by the quantum theory of biology. Later we will see that it much more, than figurative expression. Mutations are really obliged by the origin to "quantum jumps" in the gene molecule. But the quantum theory there were only two years when de Friz for the first time published the opening (in 1902). It is not surprising that life of the whole generation was required to establish close connection between them! <…>
In the light of modern knowledge the mechanism of heredity is closely connected with the basis of the quantum theory and, even moreover, leans on it. This theory was formulated by Max Planck in 1900. The modern genetics begins with "opening" of Mendelian work as de Friz, Korrens and Chermak (1900) and with de Friz's work about mutations (1901 — 1903). Thus, time of the birth of two great theories almost matches, and it is not surprising that both had to reach the certain degree of the maturity before between them there could be the communication.
The quantum theory required more than a quarter of the century when in 1926 — 1927 W. Heitler and F. London formulated basic provisions of the quantum theory of chemical bonds. The Heitler-londonovsky theory includes the thinnest and difficult concepts of the latest quantum theory called by the quantum mechanics, or the wave mechanics. Her statement without application of the higher mathematics is almost impossible or would demand, at least, the small book. But now, when all work is already performed, becomes possible to establish connection between quantum transitions and mutations" (Schrödinger Ervin).
The only weak point of the mutational theory of de Friz is the solution of the question: how steam of "cripples degenerates", can "black sheep" with new signs (it is also unknown, whether useful) find each other in the updated ecological niche for fixing in the phenotype of mutational changes? The half of the answer is in the question. Collected changes of conditions of the ecosystem, impossibility of overcoming hindrances are the basis of mutational explosion or intermittent emergence of new information. Further become effective statistical laws of Natural Selection.
So, we will sum up. In the broadest understanding we can put equality sign between the concepts "information" and "life". The organism is alive while his brain is able to take and process-decode information. And the only way of existence of the brain is the extraction, decoding of information and elaboration of managing influences.
And not some abstract, someone's "neutral" organism, and our organism.
The brain of biological activity resists until the last second the non-existence, processes information and gives managing influences. From here fables about otherworldly immortality, the basis of all cults. Animals have no need of cult burials, so, and ideas of otherworldly life.
And only the human brain, resisting the non-existence and preserving information, it is capable of occult madness and squandering of necropolises. And if yours of spermiya broke through myriads of generations and billions of death to life, be worthy these efforts in the vale of life, during only 25-30 thousand days. Remember that, as well as for all other animals, on that aspect of life we have nothing. Founders of all faiths and their apologists, making out our inborn religiousness (conscientiousness) in madness of crowd, it was very well known and known. The doctrine of anthropocentrism — "masterpiece" "just like" and "paradise" on that side is the basis for all faiths. Having balanced "wreath" with "creatures", the Church will fail. And everyone aware that there is no punishment "in the next world", absolutely differently appreciates every day and each act "on it". Both loves and hates.
The power expediency of excess creativity of the organism is defined by need of constant feed of the brain its only food - information therefore energy costs on creativity, even such as reading, are always excessive. And top of creative efforts is the full devotion, self-sacrifice, self-renunciation of couple - the basis of any fertility and guarantee of health of the given rise carrier of the selected information.
Also energy costs on creativity at emergence of new information in any physical system are always excessive.
And now we will ask the question what there is the temporary set of knowledge of the subject and what there is objective information with what garbage we are stuffed by media for masses and what efforts are made by the organism for survival, filtering the vital information from this garbage (not therefore whether we so catastrophically quickly grow old?), what organism can be considered the dead even if it still moves?
But life, human life, has still the task for which she is responsible: extraction of negative entropy and reduction of social disorder at the level of population.
Probability - the mathematical category speaking about patterns of emergence of the accidental phenomena. For the closed system becomes equal to zero when decoding of Information by it from surrounding carriers. Or more categorically information is the denial of probability.
The accident is the pattern of higher order, or the event which probability is defined by the quantitative index of the D disorder of the atomic and molecular movement in substance from Boltsmana-Gibbs's law or the quantitative index of disorder for any other system - biological, social, space.
Matter - the objective reality reflected in Information on its properties at the same time the measure of objectivity of matter does not depend on reality of feelings of the subject. From the point of view of the physicist matter consists of substance and the field. Substance is the space atomic and molecular grid submerged in the field on nine tenth volumes (on average, depending on density and aggregate state of substance, the greatest density of substance in its fluid phase).
Consciousness is the ability of the subject to display of objective reality, matter which evolved at the birth of Information, the decoded information at ontogenesis and the emotions which arose at the same time - individual mental reactions.
Sound stereotype - the associative communications which strongly developed in consciousness of the subject between the arisen image and the said sound.
Public consciousness - the total vector of individual interests (in USAn personal self-interest) in society.
Conscience (Latin RELIGIO) - genetically inherited social category defining the steady condition of mentality of the isolated subject in society at which he so estimates the behavior as though it was under the fixed, evaluating look of other subjects. And it is equal also motivation of behavior of the uninsulated subject among similar other subjects of society.
Freedom - see Conscience
The power - not comprehensive category of society denying category "conscience". For not free, "without - conscientious" the societies Power - implementation of the individual right for assignment of the public additional product and also someone else's property. Here "right" = interest, self-interest = violence. From here public consciousness in such society as the total vector personal korysty, is equal to zero or is even negative. It not society =socio, and =publicum public, not people = the people, and crowd = охлос, the certain individual - the parasite consumer, but not the free creator.
Need, poverty. The wise man told: "Little things in life are different events between the birth and death". Let's add it. The need is our births and death between vectors of individual self-interest, under the power of the right of assignment of public property.
Self-control, coolness, composure - behavior model of the personality which implements the will of managing structures of the Power (see), or this indifference of the absolute egoist. The person with conscience having freedom of choice is always emotional.Top