Kinds of electric traumas
Universal electrification of the current production bears in itself potential electric danger. Sources of this danger are:
- the electrified equipment;
- power supply networks;
- household electrical equipment;
- digital and organizational devices which function from electricity.
Defeat cases electric current of the person make rather small percent (if to compare to other types of traumatism on production), but among injuries with heavy and death it costs on one of the first places.
The large number of electric traumas (about 55-65%) happens during the work with the installations working from tension up to 1000 Century. To the fact broad use of this electric equipment and rather weak level of readiness of the people working at it is the reason for that.
At defeats by current of the person electricity renders:
- Electrolytic influence.
- Thermal influence.
- Biological influence.
Electrolytic influence — under the influence of electric current on the live organism in it happens decomposition and redistribution of the chemical elements which are in the liquid environment. Such environments are blood, the lymph and other organic liquids.
Similar electric influence is resulted by strong violation of physical and chemical structure both liquid environments, and living tissue of the person in general.
Thermal influence — the human body represents the conductor with the certain resistance, and as we remember, when passing electric current through the conductor on it heat is generated.
At small values of current thermal influence can be neglected, and here when values of current reach units, tens and hundreds of amperes, its action is capable to cause the most severe burns and violations of both external, and internal parts of the body.
Biological influence — represents excitation and irritation of body tissues that causes involuntary, spasmodic reductions of muscular tissue. From them reductions of the diaphragm of lungs and cardiac muscles are most dangerous. As well as in the previous cases, biological influence of current generates different violations in the organism: cardiac arrest, breath termination, painful shock, loss of consciousness and other.
The most widespread types of electric traumas
The electric burn is the injury of the human body caused by thermal contact with high temperature which reason electricity is.
Depending on emergence conditions, three types of burns differ:
- the current (contact) burn arises in case of course of the current through the human body after direct touch of the person to current carrying parts of electrical systems. This kind of the burn happens usually in installations of rather small tension, to 2000 (B), and causes generally skin burns (external damages);
- the arc burn arises in case of hit on the person of the electric arc. At the same time there is no direct current flow through the body of the person, as a rule, such burns develop owing to accidental short circuits in electric equipment with tension from 220 (B) and up to 6 (kV). For the example it is possible to give the situation of works (energized) in boards, when carrying out electrotechnical measurements by devices (because of carelessness or the mistake);
- the mixed burn is the consequence of simultaneous influence of both factors (current and arc). It is formed, usually, in electric units of high tension of the power supply, over 1 kV. At such option of the burn the arch is created between current-carrying parts and the person, and the current having quite big sizes (from several to tens amperes), proceeds through the person. In this case the traumatism has quite difficult character and often business reaches even the lethal outcome.
Electric signs are the one more kind of the electric traumas arising after defeat by electric current. Signs represent the accurate spots of grayish or yellowish and pale color which are on the surface of skin. They have the rounded or oval form with deepening, small on the center.
The sizes of electric signs usually are about one-five millimeters. Electric signs are painless, and their removal terminates safely. Over time affected areas of the body are completely recovered. Electric signs appear approximately at twenty percent of victims of influence of the current.
Metallization of the integument – this type of electric traumas appears when as a result of flash at the short circuit the smallest parts of the melted metal get under skin. The affected area of the integument becomes rough and has yellowish dark color. In certain cases it is possible to observe skin reddening. This type of defeat descends over time, and earlier metallized site of skin takes the normal form. Completely also painful feelings descend (if they were).
Owing to the fact that any person can be mistaken completely to avoid electrotraumatism and accidents it will hardly turn out, and here to minimize him quite really. Be just attentive and careful during the work with electricity.Top