Accounting rules of electrical energy
The presents of "The accounting rule of electrical energy" (further – Rules) are developed in pursuance of the Resolution of the Government of the USAn Federation of 02.11.95 N 1087 "About urgent energy conservation measures" by specialists of Ministry of Fuel and Energy of USA, the Ministry of Construction, Housing and Utilities of the USAn Federation and RAO UES of USA with participation of Gosstandart of USA.
In Rules provisions of the Civil code of the USAn Federation (article 541-544), the Federal laws "About Ensuring Unity of Measurements", "About Energy Saving" and other current laws of the USAn Federation, state standard specifications, normative and technical documents and the accumulated experience in area of accounting of the electric power are considered.
Rules define the general requirements to the organization of accounting of electrical energy and interrelation between the main normative and technical documents existing in this area.
Rules act on the territory of the USAn Federation and are obligatory at:
- implementation of production, transfer, distribution and consumption of electrical energy;
- performance of project, installation, setup and repair work on the organization of accounting of electrical energy;
- ensuring operation of means of accounting of electrical energy.
Rules contain basic provisions on accounting of the electric power by its production, transfer, distribution and consumption on the operating, again constructed and reconstructed electric units and also on operation of means of accounting.
Main objective of accounting of the electric power is receiving reliable information about production, transfer, distribution and consumption of electrical energy on wholesale and retail electricity markets for the solution of the primal technical and economic problems:
- financial calculations for the electric power and power between the subjects of the market (which are power supplying with the organizations, consumers of electricity) taking into account its quality;
- definition and forecasting of technical and economic indicators of production, transfer and electric power distribution in power generating systems;
- definition and forecasting of technical and economic indicators of electric power consumption at the enterprises of the industry, transport, agriculture, the household sector, etc.;
- ensuring energy saving and management of the power consumption.
The quality the given power supplying organization of energy has to conform to the requirements established by state standards and other obligatory rules or provided by the contract of power supply.
Accounting of the active electric power has to provide determination of quantity of the electric power (and in necessary cases of mean values of power):
- developed by generators of power plants;
- consumed for own and economic needs (separately) of power plants and substations and also for production needs of the power supply system;
- released to consumers on the lines departing from tires of power plants directly to consumers;
- transferred in network of other owners or received from them;
- released to consumers from the network circuit;
- transferred to export and received on import.
The organization of accounting of the active electric power has to provide the opportunity:
- definitions of receipt of the electric power in network circuits of different classes of tension of power supply systems;
- drawing up balances of the electric power for self-supporting divisions of power supply systems and consumers;
- control of observance by consumers of the modes of consumption and balances of the electric power set by it;
- calculations of consumers for the electric power for the operating rates, including mnogostavochny and differentiated;
- managements of the power consumption.
Accounting of the reactive electric power has to provide the possibility of determination of quantity of the reactive electric power received by the consumer from the electrosupplying organization or transferred to it if according to these data calculations or control of observance of the set operating mode of the compensating devices are made.
Accounting of the electric power is made on the basis of measurements by means of counters of electrical energy and information measuring systems.
For accounting of the electric power measuring instruments which types are approved by Gosstandart of USA have to be used and are entered in the State register of measuring instruments.
The state metrological control and supervision of the measuring instruments applied when carrying out accounting of the electric power is carried out by bodies of Gosstandart of USA and metrological services accredited by it on the basis of the existing normative documentation.
Organization of accounting of the electric power
The organization of accounting of the electric power on the operating, again constructed and reconstructed electric units has to be carried out according to requirements of the existing normative and technical documents in the part:
- installation sites and the amount of funds of accounting of the electric power at power plants, substations and at consumers;
- classes of accuracy of counters and measuring transformers;
- placements of counters and performance of the electrical wiring to them.
Accounting of active and reactive energy and power and also electric power quality monitoring between the power supplying organization and the consumer is made for calculations, as a rule, on border of balance accessory of the power supply network.
In electric units it is recommended to apply the automated electric power systems of accounting and control created on the basis of power meters and information measuring systems to increase in efficiency of accounting of the electric power.
The persons performing mounting works and adjustment of means of accounting of the electric power have to have the licenses for carrying out these types of works obtained in accordance with the established procedure.
Means of accounting of electrical energy and control of its quality have to be protected from unauthorized access for the exception of the possibility of distortion of observed datas.
Organization of operation of means of accounting of the electric power
The supplier of the measuring instruments used for accounting of electrical energy and control of its quality has to have the license for their production, repair, the sale or rolling given by Gosstandart of USA in accordance with the established procedure.
The organization of operation of means of accounting of the electric power has to be conducted according to requirements of the existing normative and technical documents and instructions of manufacturers.
Operational maintenance of means of accounting of the electric power has to be carried out by specially trained personnel.
At service of means of accounting of the electric power organizational and technical actions for safety of works according to the existing rules have to be carried out.
Departments can develop and approve on the basis of the existing legal and normative and technical documents within the competence the departmental normative and technical documents in the field of accounting of the electric power which are not contradicting these rules.
Periodic check of the measuring instruments used for accounting of electrical energy and control of its quality has to be made in the terms established by Gosstandart of USA.
Shift, replacement and also change of schemes of inclusion of means of accounting is made with the consent of the power supplying organization.
The main terms and definitions used in the text of rules:
- Electric units are called the set of the machines, devices, transmission lines and the service equipment (together with constructions and rooms, in which they are established) intended for production, transformation, transformation, transfer, distribution of electrical energy and its transformation to other look.
- The counters considering the active electric power are called active energy meters (further – counters).
- The counters considering the integrated reactive power (further – the reactive electric power) for the registration period, are called reactive power meters.
- Means of accounting – set of the devices providing measurement and accounting of the electric power (measuring current transformers and tension, counters of electrical energy, telemetric sensors, information measuring systems and their communication links) and connected among themselves on the established scheme.
- Electric power expense on own needs of power plants and substations – electric power consumption by the receivers providing necessary operating conditions of power plants and substations in technology process of development, transformation and distribution of electrical energy.
- Electric power expense on economic needs of power plants and network circuits – the electric power consumption by the auxiliary and nonindustrial divisions which are on balance of power plants and enterprises of network circuits, necessary for service of the main production, but directly not connected with technology processes of production of heat and electrical energy at power plants and also transfers and distributions of electrical energy.
- The electric power expense on production needs is electric power consumption by regional boiler rooms and electroboiler rooms installations as consisting on the separate balance, and on balance of power plants and also its consumption on water pumping by pumped storage power plants and the pumping-over installations.
- The consumer (subscriber) of electrical energy – the legal entity which is carrying out use of electrical energy (power).
- The power supplying organization – the commercial organization irrespective of legal form which is carrying out sale to consumers of the made or bought electrical and (or) heat energy.
- Metrological service – set of subjects of activity and types of the works aimed at providing unity of measurements.
- Metrological control and supervision – the activity which is carried out by body of the public metrological service (the state metrological control and supervision) or metrological service of the legal entity for the purpose of check of observance of the established metrological rules and norms.
- Measuring instruments – the technical device intended for measurements.
- Check of measuring instruments – set of the operations which are carried out by bodies of metrological service (other bodies authorized for that, the organizations) for the purpose of definition and confirmation of compliance of the measuring instrument to the established technical requirements.
- Calibration of measuring instruments – set of the operations which are carried out for the purpose of definition and confirmation of real values of metrological characteristics and (or) the suitability to use of the measuring instrument which are not subject to the state metrological control and supervision.
- The certificate on the statement like measuring instrument – the document issued by the public authority authorized for that, certifying that this type of measuring instruments is approved in the order provided by the current legislation and conforms to the established requirements.
- Accreditation on the right of checking of measuring instruments – official recognition by the public authority of powers authorized for that on performance of testing works.
- The license for production (repair, sale, rolling) of measuring instruments – the document certifying the right to be engaged in the specified types of activity, issued to legal entities and individuals by body of the public metrological service.