Nature of electric charge

Atom was defined as the smallest particle of the element. It consists of electrons, protons and neutrons. Electrons come off atoms and move on the conductor, forming electric current. In this chapter is considered as electrons come off atoms for formation of electric current, and the short mathematical record allowing to work with very small and very large numbers vvoyoditsya. Two electrons together or two protons together represent like charges. Similar charges resist rapprochement and aim to be removed from each other.

Схема электрического заряда

Scheme of electric charge.

Process is called pushing away. The first law of interaction of electrostatic charges says: like charges make a start from each other. According to the second law of interaction of electrostatic charges, opposite charges are attracted to each other.

Negative electrons are attracted to positive protons in the atomic nucleus. This attractive force is counterbalanced with the centripetal force caused by rotation of electrons around the kernel. As a result the electron remains in the orbit and does not fall on the kernel.

The size of the attractive forces and pushing away operating between two electrically electrified bodies depends on two factors: their charges and distance between them.

The separate electron has the charge which is too small for practical use. For measurement of the charge unit called by the Coulomb (C) which is called in honor of Charles Coulon is accepted. Electric charge (Q) of 6 280 000 000 000 000 000 electrons (six quintillion 280 quadrillion or 6,28 x 10 in degree 18) makes one Coulomb.

Electric charges are created by the shift of electrons. When the surplus of electrons in one point and deficit of electrons in another takes place, between these points there is the potential difference. When there is the potential difference between two electrified bodies connected by the conductor, electrons will flow on the conductor. This flow of electrons is called current.

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