How to equip the workplace of the electrical fitter?
Workplace is called the work uchayostok equipped with all necessary for performance of production operations.
At design of the workplace it is necessary, first of all to aim at facilitating work of the person, to create to it the maximum of conveniences, to make the workplace safe and convenient.
At the same time the sizes and the shape of the body of the person, its mass, force and the napravyoleny movements of hands and legs, osobenyonost of sight and hearing have to be considered.
At the same time the optimum sizes of the working zone, for placement of instrumenyot, materials, devices, priyosposobleniye and for performance of working operations have to be observed. In fig. 1 working zones in the horizontal plane during the work are shown sitting or standing for the man of average height.
The easiest to take objects and to perform work in the zone of the lightest reach for hands - 1. This zone is limited to the arches described by the soyognuty hands in the elbow turning in the shoulder joint.
Wider zones - 2 are limited to arches which opisyyovat outstretched arms. The shaded zone A is optimum for especially exact works: it is convenient to work both hands and at the same time to examine the product. In the zone B it is easy to take objects. Here it is recommended to place the most common tool and parts on postoyanyony places. The zone B is less convenient. Here it is possible to place measuring tools, devices, materials.
Working zone at working situation "sitting" makes on height of 600-1200 mm, on depth of 500 mm and on the front of 550 mm from the center of sitting.
When performing especially exact works these razyomer change a little: on height of 800-1 000 mm, on the front of 500 mm and on depth of 200-400 mm from the center of sitting.
Data on optimum and extremely dopuyostimy zones of reach for hands during the work are included below costing (mm).
In fig. 2 installation zones on height of indicators (devices, signaling devices) and governing bodies are shown. The most important of them have to be established in the most convenient, available to the operator, places with the good overview.
Fig. 2 the Sizes (mm) of zones of rational placement on height of indicators and governing bodies: 1,2 - the maximum zone, 2,4 - the zone for the most important objects.
The working zone and height of the effective area are calculated on the free pose - alternately standing and sitting. At the choice of height of the effective area it is recommended to proceed from the following data:
In fig. 3 the two-seat workbench for service technicians or collectors is shown. Its height can be regulated in the zaviyosimost from human height. Width of the table 1 is 800 mm, number of boxes 2 - no more than 4, 50, 75, 150 mm in depth for placement in 1 number of the tool and devices, the manual vice, etc. Length of boxes - no more than 450-500 mm. Boxes move on rollers and have the emphasis in order that the tool did not vyyopadat. The workbench has the superstructure 3 in the form of 2 shelves and departments with 12 small yashchiyoka 4 in which it is convenient to mechanic to store fine details.
In the design of the workplace requirements of biomechanics of the body of the person have to be considered: the maximum economy of energy on the labor movements and physical efforts. The labor movements are rational if they are made at the same time, symmetrically, naturally, is rhythmical and usual. All 5 prinyotsip are interconnected. During the work it is necessary that work of both hands was combined. The movements of hands simyometrichny and opposite in direction are physiologically favorable. At the same time balance of the body dostiyogatsya that facilitates work.
Dviyozheniye on arches, the corresponding joints of the body, but not rectilinear are rational (though the last and are the shortest). For example, the movement of the hand on the arch with the center in the elbow or in the shoulder is rational. In all cases the simple and usual movements are most reasonable. The design of the workplace has to provide the korotyoky, unfatiguing movements of hands, exclude rearrangement of tools and parts from one hand in another.
Objects, kotoyory the working beret the right hand, place on the right, and the left ruyoky - at the left. Tools and devices have in the stroyogy order, both in the workplace, and in tool cabinets and in boxes of workbenches.
Everyone working it is necessary to provide the area not less than 4,5 sq.m with the height of room of 3,2 m or not less than 15 m3 of volume of the room.
In the course of work of people accepts convenient poses different not always that can lead to change of blood circulation, breath, to the backbone curvature, expansion of veins standing.
The main physiological requirements in the working pose: the direct bearing, the possibility of change of sitting positions and standing, convenience of position of the trunk, head and extremities, the free and ekonomyony movements, the good overview of work.
Working standing or having bent, it is necessary to spend the eneryogiya for maintenance of the body in vertical or inclined polozheyoniya almost twice big, than working sitting as at stayotichesky deduction of the body of the muscle are strained and it causes fast exhaustion. The most convenient and easy the pose is considered sitting. But even in this case the person cannot is long to be in adenomas and the same situation. Therefore it is more correct to alternate the working pose sitting and standing.
Working pose sitting it is recommended: for works with efforts up to 5 kgfs; with the umeyorenny rate and scope of movements; for the works demanding the big tochyonost.
In the sitting position the correct and convenient landing is important. It dostiyogatsya by the support of the back giving the razyogruzka to back muscles; correct design of sitting; uniform distribution of body weight on its surface; convenient placement of legs. Normal chairs and tabuyoreta do not meet the physiological requirements: they cause stagnation of blood and excessive pressure upon joints. The chair back on which the back leans only blades, causes the backbone overload.
The Swedish doctor B. Akkerblom developed the konstyoruktion of chairs with the lumbar break of the back called by "Akkreblom's liyoniya" (fig. 4). Such design corresponds physiological, to features of the human body. In fig. 5, and working furniture for the work demanding frequent vstavayoniya in fig. 5 is shown, - for long work sitting.
The inclination and height of the seat have to be regulated in, sootvetyostviya with height of the effective area and growth working (370 — 800 mm from the floor height). The recommended seat width - 370-400 mm; depth - 370-420 mm; back height - 150 - 180 mm from seat level.
For placement of legs the free prostranyostvo under the working plane not less than 680 mm high, 530 mm wide, 450 mm in depth is provided.
Working pose standing it is correct if working costs with the lung (10 — 15 °) the inclination forward.
The bigger inclination causes static tension. The workplace is equipped with sitting for short-term rest.
Working pose sitting it can be applied during the works demanding efforts from 5 to 10 kgfs during the performing of scheduled maintenance and observation of operation of the equipment. Works which are performed lying, in the bent, tense situation with the raised hands and also being kneeling or сгорбившись, it is necessary to rationalize or whenever possible устранять, otherwise they will lead to accident.
The zone of the overview is described by the corner which top is in the center of the eye, and the parties make borders where the person at the fixed position of eyes well distinguishes objects and their location.
In the horizontal plane the viewing angle with clear distinguishing of objects makes 30-40 ° (the shaded part of fig. 6, a). At the design of the workplace of the operator the viewing angle 50-60 °, including in the zone of less clear distinguishing is recommended. The maximum permissible corner - no more than 90 ° (fig. 6, and, the unshaded part). In the vertical plane the viewing angle makes: optimum - 10 ° up and 30 ° down from the line of the look (the shaded part of fig. 6, b), and admissible - 30 ° up and 40 ° down from the line of the look. The distance at which the eye well razliyochat objects makes R = 380-760 mm (between the I—III, fig. 6, a). Optimum distance of R = 560 mm (II).Top