How works at height are carried out?

Those works during which the worker is at the height more than 1,3 m from the floor surface belong to works at height. Work at height is dangerous. It is carried out or from the woods or scaffolding having barriers or from ladders and the streyomyanok.

Расстояния отлета грузов, предметов в зависимости от высоты падения

Distances of flying away of loads, objects depending on falling height.

 

If it is necessary to work at height more than 1,5 m without scaffolding or at them, but without barriers, then the safety belt is surely applied. It is the basic  the means insuring against falling.

The woods and scaffolding carry out on the project approved by the glavyony engineer of power plant, the repair or construction orgayonization (height of the woods and scaffolding is equal to 2 m and more), the foreman, the site (height of the woods and scaffolding less than 2 m). Load of floorings of the woods is established by calculation. The operator before the cut-in hangs out on foregrounds of the scheme of dopuyostimy loadings and during instructing tells workers of their size which to exceed it is not allowed.

Рисунок 1. Деревянная лестница

Figure 1. Wooden ladder.

The wooden woods produce from the dry undamaged boards not less than 40 mm thick without roe. If the woods need to be established near heated surfaces, then they are protected from fire by the metal leaf. The metal woods do razyoborny with building in struts and ground. The woods reliably fix to walls on all height. Places and ways of fastening ukazyyovatsya in the project. If the woods stand separately from the laying of boilers or walls of buildings, then for their stability and rigidity do thrusts and drag struts according to the project.

The flooring on the woods and scaffolding is carried out equal of boards 40 — 50 mm thick. Width of the flooring has to be not less than 1 m. In order that down the tool or materials did not fall, boards lay without slots, and at the edges of the flooring put the bortoyovy board not less than 10 cm high on the edge. Gaps between boards can be no more than 1 cm. Floorings protect with the barrier (hand-rail not less than 1 m high. For rise and descent of people and materials the protected ladders serve.

The condition of the woods and scaffolding has to kontroliroyovatsya carefully. Before the cut-in administrative and technical persons accept them under the act. The head and the producer of work daily examine and check their operability. The woods sobiyorat and sort strictly in the order established by the project by means of mechanical devices. It is forbidden to bring down the woods and to sbrasyyovat from them materials.

If it is impossible to apply the woods, then works are performed from suspended cradles which attach to support by means of ropes. Support of cradles (console) are carried out according to the project; they have to lean on bearing walls or designs. The cradle is suspended so that the possibility of its capsizing was excluded. Barrier of the cradle is carried out not less than 1,2 m high. The cradle can be suspended only on the hook with the predokhraniyotelny lock in order that it did not break. When there is the probability of graze of the cradle for the acting parts the oborudovayoniya, it is necessary to establish guides and to take measures of protection of people from their possible graze. Rise and descent of the cradle are carried out by means of the winch with the electric actuator. Manage the winch from the cradle by means of buttons: the winch dviyozhtsya until the button is pressed; when pressing stops, the cradle stops.

Рисунок 2. Предохранительный пояс и страхующий канат для работы на высоте

Figure 2. The safety belt and the insuring rope for work at height.

For short-term works at height use ladders and step-ladders (fig. 1) no more than 5 m long. Work from them at height up to 4 m. Work from the upper step is prohibited. As material for ladders serves the sustained dry tree. Stuyopenki 1 cut in the bowstring 2 and sew nails or in the thorn. Both bowstrings through each 2 m are bolted coupling 3. At the height more than 5 m apply metal ladders with barrier to works.

Before work it is necessary to establish the ladder steadily. For this purpose it should be attached to the motionless subject or barrier, to be convinced that she cannot slide off or be the sdviyonut the people passing by. Special hooks 4 for capture for the pipe 5 are attached to the upper ends of the ladders put to pipelines. That the ladder did not slide, its lower ends have to have or steel edges 6 if the ladder leans on wooden or earth floors, or reziyonovy tips 7 if the ladder is established on rough and concrete floors. For convenience of installation on the ends of some ladders do the self-established plates 8.

Operability of ladders and step-ladders is controlled, examining them once a month and testing the load weighing 120 kg once a year: the ladder is established at an angle 75 ° to the horizontal, the load is suspended to the average, not strengthened step. After the ispyyotaniye make the brand where the serial noyomer and date of the following its testing are specified the ladder. Ladders with the overdue term of testing are unsuitable to use.

During the work at height working cannot throw the tool or materials: they are given on the ladder or by means of the rope. It is impossible to allow falling of the tool or materials on the people who are below. If below the place of work there is the oborudoyovaniye, there pass people or there is no continuous flooring, then podveyoshivat strong tarpaulin or other protecting covering. Work on accidental supports (boxes, barrels) and also from farms, rafters without scaffolding and barriers is prohibited.

Границы опасной зоны поражения разлетающимися при электрической сварке

Borders of the dangerous zone of defeat scattering at electric welding.

During the work from ladders and step-ladders it is necessary to soblyuyodat precautionary measures: it is impossible to stand under the ladder, work at kotoyory, or to support her below by hands. It should be strengthened strongly. If it is reliable to fix the ladder difficult or sdeyolana floors smooth, then it is possible to work only with the permission of the master and under observation and protection of the worker who (in the look the isklyucheyoniya) will support the ladder at the basis. This worker has to be protected from falling from above of any subject.

With the electric or pneumatic tool it is possible to work at height only from the flooring of the woods or from platforms, ograzhdenyony from 3 parties as the safety barrier. From ladders such work is prohibited.

Before the cut-in at height the foreman specifies methods of safe work and use of preservatives.

Safety belts are produced from the strong, not stretching material. Width of the belt is not less than 75 mm, length of 1350 — 1500 mm, the belt is tightened by means of belts 1 with buckles of 2 (fig. 2). The belt or the chain 3 is used for the krepyoleniye for designs; it is connected to the belt one end through the half ring 4, and to others through the carbine 5 with the spring and the latch for protection from self-disclosure.

The belt is tested assembled the load weighing 300 kg within 5 min. 1 times in 6 months. The expiration date is specified on the belt label. In the absence of such mark or in case of the overdue mark it is forbidden to use the belt.

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