How it is correct to install sockets and switches?
At the choice of sockets you will face the huge choice of the offered products. In such assortment it is possible to get confused easily.
New rules of electrical safety demand to install only ground outlets. From normal two-conductor sockets they are distinguished by availability of the third contact – the earth.
Around the world sockets differ a little from each other. French has two openings and the pin. The American socket has holes with side cuts. German in the middle has deepening at the bottom of which two openings are located. On each side deepenings are laid the grounding contacts. It turns out that at inclusion of the fork in the socket by the first grounding, and then current carrying parts connects. Such type of sockets is most of all widespread in USA.
Sockets happen for the buried and open wiring.
In veins houses the buried wiring is usually used. All current carrying parts of the socket are in the wall. At open wiring of the wire are laid over walls or in cable channels. There are intermediate options. Earlier in sockets screw fastening of current carrying wires was used.
In this case contacts of the wire are clamped between two plates the connecting screw. Now it is possible to meet the socket without screw fastening. Contacts of the wire are inserted into the special opening extending when pressing the special key. Screw fastening is considered more reliable though demands more time for installation.
You have to determine height of installation of sockets. No rules for this purpose exist. The main thing that it was convenient to you to connect the device necessary to you to the socket. The only thing that normirovano PUE, is the minimum distance from switches, plug adapters and elements of electric units to gas pipelines. It has to be not less than 0,5 m. In bathrooms all is much more strict. The socket or the switch is allowed to be installed only using OUZO, reacting to the differential current which is not exceeding 30 mA there.
Any switches and plug adapters have to be at distance not less than 0,6 m from the doorway of the shower cabin. Sockets have to be installed in special mounting boxes. Electric wires need to be carried out to the box through the special opening. For reliable fastening the mounting box can be recorded on the wall alabaster. The wires brought to the box connect to socket plugs. The socket fastens to the box with the help of adjusting screws. The decorative pad is established by the last step. The same way the switch is installed.
On counters of shops it is possible to meet the socket with the pusher or the catapult. Having pressed it, you automatically push out the fork from the socket. It would seem, anything special. But sometimes, when it is difficult to reach the fork or to get difficult, we just pull for the wire. Such action can cause break of isolation of the wire, cause electric shock or short circuit. And from the socket with the catapult it is possible to take out the fork, even without concerning it. To be quiet, it is better to buy qualitative products of well-known companies of the world, than to think constantly of the safety.
Inhabitants of the houses built in 60-80 years of the last century, not once, probably, had to face such problem as burning out or carbonization of isolation on wires, suitable to sockets. Usually in such buildings of the socket, located on partitions of the walls separating rooms of the apartment are in one through channel and connect with each other the loop. Without considering the question of the power which is taken away from the socket, we will concern the subject of connection of wires in sockets.
Kind of we tried to tighten these conductors tightening contacts in sockets, ideal connection all the same will not turn out. I.e. this site will have added resistance and at the big power consumption the equipment powered from this or following socket, on this site of the chain voltage drop is formed, as will lead to heating of wires and to isolation burning out.
But here you decided to replace the electrical wiring in the apartment. If you connect sockets in the same way, as well as was, then, perhaps, the same situation, as well as before replacement of wires, even will turn out in spite of the fact that aluminum wires are changed for the copper cable. We offer more reliable way of connection of sockets the loop. It is necessary to make only when laying new conductings the cable loop in the mounting box (the box for installation of the socket), and further to bring the cable to the following socket.
Bathroom — one of the most wet places in the apartment therefore at installation of the socket it is necessary to consider several rules. What electric devices you are going to turn on in the socket? If razor, rules of installation of the socket one. And if the socket is intended for the washing machine, the hair dryer or the electric hand-drier, requirements will be more.
Let's consider at first the first option. Safety demands that the socket in the bathroom had grounding. But in old houses grounding initially is not provided. Therefore for the power supply of devices of small power (for example electrorazors) it is possible to use the isolation transformer.
At installation of the socket it is necessary to observe security measures: considering the increased humidity of the room, the electrical wiring shall be hidden, and all junctions of conductors are carefully insulated. You should not place sockets on cold walls where condensate can be formed. The socket has to be located as it is possible further from the bathroom and the sink (not less than 0,6 m as order PUE).
Specialists recommend to use special moisture-proof sockets. They are more expensive normal, but it completely is repaid: on such sockets there are covers and special sealants which do not pass moisture in the mechanism.
CJSC MPO Elektromontazh offers moisture-proof sockets for the open and buried wiring of production of firms: ABB, "Legrand", "Prodax", "Kontakt", "KORR", "ELSO", "Gira" - with degree of protection of IP44 above. This indicator means that the electrosocket is protected from water splashes. It is enough for installation of the socket in the bathroom or other places with the increased humidity. But as for powerful electric devices, for their connection and protection against defeat by electric current it is the best of all to use OUZO. Necessary requirements to installation are provided in instructions to washing machines:
- first, the socket has to be 3-contact. Respectively, the wire — 3-wire. It is forbidden to use household extenders for connection of washing machines;
- secondly, the separate line which according to PUE has to be protected by OUZO with the leakage current 10 mA is necessary. Besides, the automatic cut recommended by manufacturing firm is surely put. It is natural that any mounting works have to be performed by specialists.