Kinds of sockets
Sockets and switches are the most important elements of any home power supply network and deserve the separate story about them.
The full name of the socket – the plug adapter. Perhaps, there is no such house in which there would be no this electroadjusting product. Via sockets there is the connection of electric devices without which modern life is inconceivable. Many of us who are more senior, probably, remember those first releases of sockets which at us were established in apartments or basements.
There was a time, technologies did not stand still, everything developed. And slowly sockets turned into that product which we know everything.
Kinds of sockets there is such huge number presently that occasionally it is very difficult to uninitiated person to understand what is necessary to it. On the appearance all sockets are very similar. And to decide on the choice, it is necessary to know some technical details.
Any socket always consists of the following basic elements:
- The basis (which is called the block).
- Protective body.
The contact is the basic working element of the socket. Through it there is transmission of energy from the power cable on contacts of the connected device. Material of contact is the metal alloy having the certain elasticity for reliable connection of pins of your fork with the socket. On the one hand contacts have screw or keyboard terminals for connection to the power conductor, with another – interact with the fork.
The technical characteristic of contacts is of great importance here, that is what tension and current intensity they are expected. Sockets of the old sample were expected the rated voltage of 220-230 V and current intensity 6,3-10 A. These sizes much less, than at modern products, in which admissible current intensity – 10-16 A. Total power of electric devices which you can connect to separately taken socket depends on these indicators.
It turns out that present sockets exceed old samples approximately three times. If you in the apartment suddenly have sockets of the old sample, surely think whether it is worth connecting to them the devices. The socket can not sustain! And it is not the only problem of old sockets.
Distance between output pins too the miscellaneous, at modern it is more. Besides, diameter of pins of the fork too another, instead of 4 mm what it was earlier became 4,8 mm. Some house masters ream openings in the body, try to move apart contacts that forks of new generation could be connected to old sockets. Do not do it if your living space is expensive to you. Also do not put any adapters: than the high probability of KZ more connections, that. Buy better the new, normal socket.
The block is the basis of the socket, that is on what contacts and the protective body keep. It is made of ceramics or the karbolit (the block from the karbolit was used in old samples). Blocks are made also of special plastic (as, for example, in Wessen sockets). If your socket which is built in, then on the block surely is fastening for its installation in the podrozetnik (in the form of spreader pads). The example of the socket block is included below.
The protective body is the external cover of the connector with openings under the plug fork. It performs protective and decorative functions.
Though there is a lot of kinds of sockets, they are divided into several main types:
- The built-in sockets (are used at the buried wiring, are established in special the podrozetnik).
- Laid on sockets (sockets which fasten on the wall surface, through special fastenings with use of dowels).
- Double sockets (there are as built in, and consignment notes).
- Sockets with additional functions (with illumination, with protective blinds, with the fork pusher, with the timer, etc.).
- Special sockets (antenna, computer, telephone, can be both consignment notes, and built in). Occur among numerous types of this category of sockets also such which integrate antenna, telephone, computer jacks in one body. It is rather simple to distinguish connectors computer and telephone: telephone have 4 contacts, and computer – 8.
- Power connectors are the plug and socket connectors intended for connection to single-phase and three-phase networks of different electric devices ("father" and "mother" connectors). In life such connectors are used rather seldom. Generally we can see them on building sites (for example, at connection of the welding machine).
- One more kind of sockets – it is good to all of us the familiar extender. Its purpose is known to all.
Presently at construction of new buildings, at renovation of the electrical wiring in apartments for power chains only three-contact sockets, that is the sockets having additional contact for the protective wire are allowed for installation.
Sockets have to be equipped with the system of blinds which block plug contact slots when they are not used. For what it is necessary? The answer is rather simple: that your beloved kids could not put some objects or two fingers there. As you understand, all sockets have to be strongly fixed on the basis (podrozetnik) and not separate under no circumstances from it. Even if you are sure for all 100% that your socket is fixed reliably, there is always the small chance that you can pull out the socket from the adjusting place.
Therefore when you pull out the fork from slots of the socket, surely hold it with the second free hand. Never get the fork from the socket, pulling the cord. At the slightest distortion of pins of the fork it will get stuck in contacts of the socket. Having pulled the wire, it is possible just to pull out the socket from the wall, kind of it at you was reliably fixed. And KZ then is provided to you.
As it was already written the previous publications, for power chains it is necessary to use the conductor with a section of 2,5 mm ². But if wires with the cross-sectional area of the current-carrying vein of 1,5 mm ² are brought to the socket, then it means that it is supposed to use these sockets for low-power consumers of electricity (lamps, desk lamps, TVs, etc.). But at the same time always you remember that AV for such lines has to be 10 (13) And.
As well as all electric circuits, feed circuits of sockets have to have at the beginning protection in the form of highly sensitive OUZO of differential current (30 mA) of the EXPERT type. However there is one "but". During the thunderstorm at OUZO perhaps spontaneous switching off. And the socket to which your computer is connected should be connected only on AV (but it is only the recommendation).
Each chain of sockets can give the power supply to at most five sockets or consumers if the section of veins of wires is 1,5 mm ², and to eight sockets or points of consumption if the section of wires is 2,5 mm ². Double sockets are considered as one point of consumption.
Sockets it is possible to connect one for another is the consecutive scheme. It is also possible to make the branching of chains of sockets by means of distribution boxes – the parallel scheme.
The indicator of protection of electric devices and sockets, in particular, consists of two digits and two letters of the IP code.
It would seem that it is simpler than installation of the socket! But you do not hurry. Haste in such business is not necessary at all. It is possible to establish it so that then for a long time it is necessary to be sorry about it.
It is necessary to recognize that you already laid the feeding line, established the podrozetnik and brought to him the conductor.
At first it is necessary to be defined what tool is required:
- The set of screw-drivers (set because it is unknown how business will go).
- Side cutting pliers (for removal superfluous).
- Cleaning. Professionals know, what is it, and for those who take the first steps in the electrician, it is necessary to give the example of one of such tools. Believe, it is very convenient to work with it. If there is the opportunity, surely get it. With ease it is possible to smooth out conductors section 3×1,5 mm and 3×2,5 mm. It as you remember, our main conductors.
- Level (for installation check).
- Attentively examine the socket. Make sure that it in the same state when you only brought it from shop.
- Clean about 10 cm of the wire from the protective cover. Smooth out the ends of veins approximately on 1 cm.
- Take the socket in hand and untwist a little in turn all three jack screws. Then in turn begin to bring veins to contacts of the socket. Phase (the black vein) and zero (the blue vein) are connected to socket poles (that is there where you will connect afterwards the fork), and the protective vein (flavovirent) – to protective contact (that is to the plate which passes on the middle of the socket). All screws of the socket have to be strong tightened. But be not overzealous, and that it is possible to strip the thread either at the screw, or at the directing nut. At the electrical wiring without protective wire the third vein (flavovirent color) it is better to insulate and leave alone (not to connect anywhere). Afterwards, when you will have the grounding, you with ease will be able to connect this vein.
- Leave the socket to hang on veins. Take the screw-driver and turn off a little adjusting screws which are in the podrozetnik.
- Turn in a little vein to the back part of the socket and reduce them to each other. Then turn to the right or to the left a little to direct the socket to adjusting screws (in a word that there was the coincidence of screws and the widest openings which are on the socket body).
- Press and twirl the screw-driver adjusting screws. Then take level and check installation of the socket (put and hold level on the socket upper).
- All decorative framework is fastened.
- It is necessary to take level in hand, to substitute it to the frame and to check installation.
Here and all process of installation. Agree that it is not so difficult.
If you use the consecutive scheme of connection of sockets in the housing and if the design of sockets allows to attach additional veins (checkpoints) of the second socket to its plugs, then the design of connection will look as follows.
But there is one nuance. Spreader claws enter the design of sockets.
If you carry out installation of the socket by means of such pads, watch that veins of your conductor did not get under them when you hold apart them. Otherwise, when you will give the power supply to this line of the socket, you can have KZ and search of the reason of short circuit can drag on for a long time. Not to look for KZ reason, it is better to mark these sockets on your plan.
The scheme of connection of the line of the socket in the board will be in conclusion provided.
Note. As you see, two-section AV are used, and in protection of the line of sockets it is possible to use safety locks. Really everything returns to traffic jams? By no means not. There is one "cunning" adaptation which you can also use when mounting the electric board and connection of lines of your electrical wiring.
Also useful will be to study some tables for the general development.
Distribution of standards of tension.
Distribution of types of sockets in the world.
Visual table of types of sockets.Top