What is solar power?
Solar power — the direction of power based on direct use of solar radiation for obtaining energy in any look.
The solar power uses the inexhaustible power source and is environmentally friendly, that is not making harmful waste. Power generation by means of solar power plants is well coordinated with the concept of the distributed power generation. Ways of receiving electricity and heat from solar radiation:
- Receiving the electric power by means of photo cells.
- Transformation of solar energy to electricity by means of thermal machines: the steam-engines (piston or turbine) using water vapor, the carbon dioxide gas, propane-butane, freona; Stirling engine, etc.
- Heliothermal power — heating of the surface absorbing sunshine, and the subsequent distribution and heat utilization (focusing of solar radiation on the vessel with water for use of heated water in heating or in steam electric generators).
- Thermoair power plants (transformation of solar energy to energy of the airflow directed to the turbine generator).
- Solar aerostat power plants (generation of water vapor in the aerostat cylinder due to heating by the solar radiation of the surface of the aerostat covered with the selection absorbing covering). Advantage: steam reserve in the cylinder is enough for work of power plant in night-time and in rainy weather.
Merits and demerits
- General availability and inexhaustibility of the source.
- Theoretically full safety for the environment though there is the probability that universal implementation of solar power can change albedo (the characteristic of the reflective (disseminating) ability) of the land surface and to lead to climate change (however at modern level of consumption of energy it is extremely improbable).
- Dependence on weather and time of day.
- As a result - need of accumulation of energy.
- High cost of the design.
- Need of periodic cleaning of the catopter of dust.
- Heating of the atmosphere over power plant.
Types of photoelectric cells:
- Single-crystal silicon.
- Polycrystalline silicon.
In 2005 6% of the market were the share of thin photo cells. In 2006 thin photo cells occupied 7% of the market. In 2007 the share of thin-film technologies increased to 8%. In 2009 the share of thin photo cells grew to 16,8%.
From 1999 for 2006 deliveries of thin photo cells grew annually on average for 80%.
Results of development of the photoelement industry
No., Country, Total powers of photo-electric stations (MW), 2009:
- Germany - 9779.
- Spain - 3386.
- Japan - 2633.
- THE USA - 1650.
- Italy - 1186.
- BB. Korea - 520.
- The Czech Republic - 465.
- Belgium - 363.
- China - 305.
- France - 272.
- India - 120.
The whole world - 22893
Perspectives of solar power
The energy generated on the basis of solar radiation will be able to provide 20-25% of needs of mankind for electricity by 2050 and to reduce carbonic acid emissions.
As experts of the International Energy Agency (IEA) believe, the solar power in 40 years at appropriate level of distribution of advanced technologies will already develop about 9 thousand terawatt-hours, or 20-25% of all necessary electricity, and it will provide reduction of emissions of the carbon dioxide gas on 6 billion tons annually.Top