What is solar power?

Solar power — the direction of power based on direct use of solar radiation for obtaining energy in any look.

Схема использования солнечной энергии

Scheme of use of solar energy.

The solar power uses the inexhaustible power source and is environmentally friendly, that is not making harmful waste. Power generation by means of solar power plants is well coordinated with the concept of the distributed power generation. Ways of receiving electricity and heat from solar radiation:

  1. Receiving the electric power by means of photo cells.
  2. Transformation of solar energy to electricity by means of thermal machines: the steam-engines (piston or turbine) using water vapor, the carbon dioxide gas, propane-butane, freona; Stirling engine, etc.
  3. Heliothermal power — heating of the surface absorbing sunshine, and the subsequent distribution and heat utilization (focusing of solar radiation on the vessel with water for use of heated water in heating or in steam electric generators).
  4. Thermoair power plants (transformation of solar energy to energy of the airflow directed to the turbine generator).
  5. Solar aerostat power plants (generation of water vapor in the aerostat cylinder due to heating by the solar radiation of the surface of the aerostat covered with the selection absorbing covering). Advantage: steam reserve in the cylinder is enough for work of power plant in night-time and in rainy weather.

Merits and demerits

Advantages:

Shortcomings:

Простая схема работы солнечной электростанции

Simple scheme of work of the solar power plant.

  1. Dependence on weather and time of day.
  2. As a result - need of accumulation of energy.
  3. High cost of the design.
  4. Need of periodic cleaning of the catopter of dust.
  5. Heating of the atmosphere over power plant.

Types of photoelectric cells:

  1. Single-crystal silicon.
  2. Polycrystalline silicon.
  3. Thin-film.

In 2005 6% of the market were the share of thin photo cells. In 2006 thin photo cells occupied 7% of the market. In 2007 the share of thin-film technologies increased to 8%. In 2009 the share of thin photo cells grew to 16,8%.
From 1999 for 2006 deliveries of thin photo cells grew annually on average for 80%.

Results of development of the photoelement industry

No., Country, Total powers of photo-electric stations (MW), 2009:

Типовая электрическая схема автономного энергоснабжения на основе солнечных батарей, модулей, панелей

Standard circuitry of autonomous power supply on the basis of solar batteries, modules, panels.

  1. Germany - 9779.
  2. Spain - 3386.
  3. Japan - 2633.
  4. THE USA - 1650.
  5. Italy - 1186.
  6. BB. Korea - 520.
  7. The Czech Republic - 465.
  8. Belgium - 363.
  9. China - 305.
  10. France - 272.
  11. India - 120.

The whole world - 22893

Perspectives of solar power

The energy generated on the basis of solar radiation will be able to provide 20-25% of needs of mankind for electricity by 2050 and to reduce carbonic acid emissions.

As experts of the International Energy Agency (IEA) believe, the solar power in 40 years at appropriate level of distribution of advanced technologies will already develop about 9 thousand terawatt-hours, or 20-25% of all necessary electricity, and it will provide reduction of emissions of the carbon dioxide gas on 6 billion tons annually.

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