General information about modern electrical household appliances
The modern level of development of production allowed to equip our houses with absolutely new generation of household appliances. Such electric assistants as vacuum cleaners, floor polishers, dishwashing and washing machines facilitate housework. By means of some models of household electrovacuum cleaners not only by 2,5-3 times it is possible to reduce time spent for cleaning of the apartment but also to successfully whitewash the ceiling, walls, to humidify the indoor air. And washing of ware by means of the dishwasher will allow to save up to 12-15% of time and also helps to use water and detergents more effectively.
Besides, washing of ware in the machine is more hygienic, than manual, and on the physical phenomena the technology of washing of ware in the machine is similar to washing of linen. Modern washing machines with the possibility of programming leave to hostesses more free time, they allow to fill in and merge automatically water, to heat it to the set temperature, to ret linen, to enter the necessary amount of detergents, to erase, rinse and wring out. However there are some difficulties with connection of machines of this kind to the network and water supply system.
Modern refrigerators became more capacious, easily and quickly freeze products, have special compartments for products of the different look. Refrigerators by the principle of development of "cold" can be separated into two look: absorbing and compression. Absorbing refrigerators possess exclusive consumer characteristics: are silent in work, are reliable, rather simple under repair.
However their essential shortcoming is that during the work they consume 3 times more electric power, than refrigerators of compression type. The principle of operation of refrigerators of absorbing type is based that when heating of the concentrated water solution of coolant it evaporates, taking away at the same time heat from the refrigerator. On ensuring operation of the absorbing refrigerator within the year about 1400 kWh of the electric power are necessary. For the same time the compression refrigerator consumes about 400 kWh.
The refrigerating unit of the compression refrigerator forms the closed system filled with coolant. The compressor sucks away coolant vapors from the evaporator and by that creates in it low pressure. Coolant vapors in the compressor contract and move in the condenser where they after cooling turn into liquid which comes to the evaporator again, and evaporates in it.
Sets of the kitchen equipment even more often supplement Microwave ovens, electric coffee makers, mixers, juice extractors, meat grinders, etc. For cooking such household electric heaters as floor (and desktop) electric stoves, electrofrying pans, electric kettles, electropans, vertical BBQ grills are even more often used.
Electric stove — the most all-purpose instrument for cooking. It is permanently installed device equipped with rings and the cabinet electric cabinet. On rings cooking in naplitny ware, in zharochny to the electric cabinet — baking of flour products, frying, stewing of vegetables and meat is made. The ring of the electric stove performs functions of the heater. In electric stoves rings of three types are applied: pig-iron, tubular, pyroceramic.
The form of the effective area of the ring usually round, and diameter can make 90, 100, 110, 145, 180 and 220 mm. Rings with a diameter of 145 mm and 180 mm are most widespread, and rings with a diameter of 90, 100 and 110 mm intend for coffee pots. Proceeding from the maximum power of heating elements, rings are divided into two groups: normal heating (warming up time up to the working temperature of 10-12 minutes for pig-iron rings and 4-5 minutes for tubular), the accelerated heating (warming up time up to the working temperature of 3-6 minutes for pig-iron rings and 1-3 minutes for tubular).
Rings of the accelerated heating depending on execution are subdivided into express rings and automatic. The express ring is called the ring with the accelerated heating to working temperature at the expense of in addition established power. Express rings are, as a rule, made pig-iron. The automatic ring is called the ring of the accelerated heating providing automatic carrying out different technology processes with independent transition of the warming up mode to the set thermal mode.
Rings are equipped with the devices allowing to regulate or power consumption from 100-350 W (on the minimum installation), or temperature of the effective area in the range of 100-500 °C. Cast pig-iron rings have two or three spiral grooves in which stack filler and heating elements. As filler of rings serves the electric insulation weight prepared on the basis of talc or the periclase. On heattechnical and electric insulation properties fillers are almost identical, but filler on the basis of talc has smaller mechanical durability.
Tubular rings are carried out from one - two - or the three-tubular heating elements (TEN) bent in the form of one or several spiral turns of Archimedes. For improvement of thermal contact of ware with TENG its effective area is carried out by flat. For increase in efficiency under TEN the reflector manufactured of stainless steel is installed.
Pyroceramic rings represent the heating element covered from above with pyroceramic material: technical polycrystalline glass or other material. The cabinet oven of the electric stove allows to use most fully advantages of electroheating when cooking.
The metal muffle is heat-insulated by fiber glass or mineral wool. The layer of heat insulation is covered with the aluminum foil which is carrying out in this case the reflector role. Aluminum foil and sidewalls of the electric stove are separated by the air layer. The muffle fastens to the front wall, forming the loading window which is closed by the door. In the door of the cabinet oven viewing glass which allows to watch the course of technology process is built in. Temperature monitoring is exercised by the temperature regulator.
Microwave ovens in which the different way of thermal treatment of products, than in gas or electric stoves is applied absolutely were widely adopted today. In microwave ovens energy of ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic oscillations, or the microwave waves generated by the magnetron is used. The products prepared in microwave ovens do not burn, completely keep vitamins, are not dehydrated and do not roast away, and process of preparation of the dish happens much quicker, than, for example, on the gas stove. At the same time the microwave oven does not heat up, does not emit any combustion products, air in kitchen remains fresh and clean. Besides, cooking in the microwave oven allows to reduce considerably use of fats that often is the important condition at the dietary power supply.
When using Microwave ovens it is necessary to observe precautionary measures: for preparation of products it is not recommended to use hermetic ware, plastic bags before preparation of products in them it is necessary to open or puncture. It is forbidden to use metal ware, the foil, newsprint and also the tissues containing synthetic materials.
Preparing or warming liquid dishes and products, it is necessary to mix them. Products in the peel, for example, potatoes or tomatoes, before preparation in the microwave oven it is necessary to pin.
Certainly, mastering art of preparation of tasty food in the Microwave oven demands experience. Therefore it is necessary to approach work creatively. At preparation of dishes the pan from heat resisting glass is applied. Its capacity can be 0,5 — 2,5 l. Such pan is issued especially for use in the microwave oven. Besides, for cooking in microwave ovens it is possible to use the makitra (the ceramic pot) and plates from polycrystalline glass.
More and more widely infrared radiation is applied to thermal treatment of products. Its use reduces duration of processes of thermal treatment, electricity costs, technology losses of the product. The essence of the infrared way of heating of foodstuff is that the energy reported to the product by radiation is distinguished in the form of warmth not only in the product blanket, but also in it therefore time of processing of the product is reduced by 40-50% for meat and for 30% for fish, and the biological value of the product does not worsen. Electrogrills, vertical BBQ grills, electrotoasters belong to specialized devices for cooking with heating of the product by means of infrared radiation. Use of infrared radiation for thermal treatment of the product allows to reduce duration of thermal treatment of the product, to conduct process without use of fats that is important for the dietary power supply, at the same time to receive the product with the improved tastes.
For heating of liquids it is possible to carry to capacity devices elektrosokovarka, electrodouble boilers, electrodeep fryers and electropans of general purpose (express pans, risovarka, tikhovarka). Household electropans were widely adopted thanks to simplicity of operation, profitability and high quality of the prepared product.
For processing of products electromeat grinders, coffee mills or electric coffee grinders, electric coffee makers, electrojuice extractors, electrobeaters and mixers are widely used.
Also electric devices for direct heating of water both without its accumulation, and for heating of tanks with water gained distribution in life. In such devices water is carried to temperature of 60-100 °C. These are field instruments for heating and boiling of small amounts of water, for example, electric kettles, electrosamovars, electrojugs, flowing electrowater heaters and capacity (landlocked) electrowater heaters.
In principle, all devices of such assignment are arranged equally, the difference exists only in design features and functional purpose of each of them. Different electric kettles, samovars, coffee pots have capacity for the heated water in which lower part TEN — the tubular electric heater of this or that form is located. Tubular electric heaters are hermetic, have usually very high degree of protection, are reliable, safe in operation. The tubular electric heater represents the thin-walled metal tube in which the spiral from the wire with very high unit resistance is placed. It is necessary to make thrifty use of household appliances in which tubular electric heaters as the fault connected with failure of this electric heater excludes the opportunity to repair all device are used especially.
It is necessary not to forget, first of all, that the devices intended for water heating can be turned on in the power supply network only when they are filled with water not less than on one third of the volume, otherwise the heating element can fuse.
It is not necessary to pour out of the electric kettle all water completely until it did not cool down or so far it is switched on in network and also it is impossible to pour or add the cold water in the heated teapot as the spiral can fail because of it.
Electric heaters for heating of premises were widely adopted rather recently. Before other types of heating they have certain advantages as are simple and safe in operation, are compact and hygienic, and at their application it is easy to automate management of the microclimate of each room. Today in world practice three types of electric heating are known: full, additional and combined. At full heating all heat losses of the building are offset by electroheating devices, at combined - the main part of thermal losses becomes covered at the expense of the centralized systems of heating, and additional electric heating is the version combined and is applied in off-season when central heating does not work, or at fall of temperature of fresh air below rated in addition to centralized.
With development of technology there is the problem of purification of air more and more sharply. The solution of this problem includes three main directions: fight against pollution sources, ventilation and improvement of the environment and purification of air by means of conditioners.
Household nadplitny electroair cleaners help to prevent pollution of walls, ceilings, curtains, furniture fatty particles, the soot which are formed when cooking and also to reduce quantity of harmful products of incomplete combustion of gas and the unpleasant smell of slightly burned food.
For creating favorable conditions in premises household conditioners which reduce are used or increase air temperature in rooms, drain air and clean it from dust. The conditioner can automatically maintain the set temperature, carry out ventilation of the room, change the motion speed and the directions of the airflow and also air exchange with the environment.
Electroirons and drying devices became usual. Modern irons are equipped with temperature regulators which automatically maintain on the iron sole temperature necessary for ironing of certain types of fabrics and also steam humidifiers which allow to iron fabrics without preliminary moistening. Besides, the iron can be weighted and also have the sprayer.
It is recommended to clean the iron at least once in 1,5-2 years to eliminate the thin fibers of fabric getting in the iron through slots between the body and the sole. These fibers can litter contacts of the temperature regulator and burn on the sole, forming the smell of burning. At analysis of the iron it is recommended to tighten all nuts which are available in the iron and to smooth out contacts of the temperature regulator that can be made, having stretched between them the small strip of the fine-grained emery paper. The brown raid which is often appearing on the effective area of the iron can be removed, wiping it with the wet rag strewed with baking soda, and it is possible to protect the iron from pollution, having processed its effective area paraffin: grated paraffin is filled in the double layer of material and iron it slightly heated iron.
And still there are special electric devices with very cozy name: "devices of soft warmth". Their assignment — to report warmly to the body of the person. These are electroblankets, electroplaids, electrobandage, electrohot-water bottles. All of them have the form of traditional household things, and in devices flexible heating elements are placed. For the exception of burns devices are supplied with the thermoswitches limiting product surface temperature.Top