Safety requirements to the metalwork tool
The main safety requirement to the tool — its operability. The hand metalwork tool of povseyodnevny application is assigned to the worker and is stored in pereyonosny tool boxes.
In the workplace of the assembler or service technician, the sboryoshchik there has to be the tool cabinet for the constant hrayoneniye of tools, devices and objects of care of the raboyochy place.
Tool cabinets with vydvizhyony small (depth no more than 50 — 100 mm) boxes 350 — 400 mm long are recommended. The tool in them is placed in 1 row. To put Nedoyopustimo its bulk. It is necessary that tools were well looked through. Periodically, at least 1 time a month, the master examines all tool and stock - as being in the storeroom, and handed out by the worker. The tool which is not answering to safety treboyovaniye is removed from the address.
The instrument of shock action is safe at the soblyuyodeniye of the following conditions. Handles of hammers have to have the smooth surface with the section of the oval form, conveniently okhvatyyovayemy palm of the hand. This section is a little thickened by the svobodyony end in order that the handle samozaklinivatsya in the hand. Material of handles — the dry tree of strong and viscous breeds — the birch, the beech, the cornel, the mountain ash. Section of handles of sledge hammers by the free end has to decrease.
Briskly hammers and sledge hammers have to have smooth, slightly vyyopukly surface, without hollows, cracks and hangnails. They nayodezhno become stronger on the handle.
The chisel has length not less than 150 mm. Its edge is sharpened at an angle 65 — 75 °. The cutting edge has slightly convex form. During the work as the chisel can fly away firm particles therefore to protection of eyes and the person it is necessary to apply safety points. Files, hacksaws, screw-drivers have to be fixed in handles of hvostoyovik strongly. These handles are banded in order to avoid splitting of the deyorev.
Wrenches have to have parallel sponges, and the size of the key has to correspond to the nut size. It is impossible to allow the gap between them. It is not necessary to extend the wrench handle; pipe or second key.
Scissors and saws for cutting of metal have to have ograzhdayoyushchy levels and rollers for protection of the hand and fingers from the popayodaniye under knives. These barriers block with the starting ustroyyostvo: blocking does not allow turning on of scissors or the saw in work without shelter of the working part. The cutting edges have to be sharp, without cracks, chips and dents.
The electrified tool (drills, sharoshka, vibrayotor, drills) during the operating time tests mechanical vozdeyyostviye as a result of which isolation of current carrying parts collapses and there can be their fault to frame. Work with the electric tool in drums, fire chambers and gas flues of boilers, tanks and on metal designs where full isolation of the person from the grounded objects of the praktiyocheska is impracticable is considered especially dangerous.
For safety of work the body of the electrified inyostrument is grounded or zanulyat, apply the lowered napryayozheniye, systematically control operability of the tool. Allowable voltage is established depending on pomeyoshcheniye type. In rooms especially dangerous in all cases tension no more than 36 V.V rooms with the raised opasyonost - 36 V is allowed; the napryayozheniye higher than 36 V is by way of exception allowed (but no more than 220 V) in that case when behind the instruyoment the qualified supervision is provided, protective equipment are used, the power supply network is equipped with special rozetyoka of 1 (fig. 1) with the grounding contact 2 which length is 1,5 — 2 times more than length of working contacts 3. Thanks to such device the body is grounded before on the tool electric current is given. In rooms without the increased danger it is possible to use the electric tool on voltage of 220 V.
Electric current for the power supply of the electrified instruyoment moves from the reducing transformer which is prisoyoedinyat to network, from the vilyoka other than forks for 12 — 36 V.V sockets especially opasyony rooms work with the elekyotroinstrument is performed in dielectric gloves, galoshes, standing on the rubber rug for the purpose of isolation from the earth and the grounded parts.
The tool is monthly proyoveryat. On the body there has to be the brand with date of the following testing.
During the work as the elektroinstruyoment it is necessary to observe precautionary measures: raboyochiya immediately has to stop work if notices at least weak action of current on the body. It is impossible to hold the electric tool for the wire or the working part. It is held only for the handle, it is impossible to insert or delete the drill to the full stop of the boss and also to delete with hands shaving from under the drill.
The pneumatic tool (hammers, drills, vibrators) priyovoditsya in action by compressed air under pressure which is eaten from the compressor by means of the hose. That there was no failure of the hose, all accessions have to be hermetic, nadezhyony, executed by means of collets. The hose is included not in the highway directly, and to its branches if the compressor stayotsionarny, or through the valve on the airdistributing box if the compressor mobile. The second end of the hose is priyosoyedinyat to the tool union. It is possible to disconnect the hose only after cutoff of compressed air the valve. During the work it is necessary to watch that the hose was not bent and did not stretch.
On handles of the pneumatic tool there are valves by means of which it is put into operation. These valves have to open easily when pressing and be closed quickly at the termination of pressing the managing handle. For this purpose they are predvayoritelno regulated.
The pneumatic tool can be included only in working situation. No-load operation of the tool is inadmissible as at the same time capture of clothes of the worker the rotating part is possible. During the operating time it is impossible to change the working part, to correct, reguyolirovat the tool.
To reduce the adverse effect of vibrations on the human body, rigid handles of the tool (both with elektriyochesky, and with the pneumatic drive) are supplied with the amortizatoyora softening vibrations and reducing amplitude of koleyobaniye to admissible.
Portable lamps quickly wear out. Electric current portable lamps have to be applied to prevention of defeat only in factory execution, strong and reliable.
The design of such portable lamp (fig. 2) excludes the touch vozyomozhnost to toyokovedushchy parts. The boss укрыт in the handle 1, the lamp of the ograzhyoden the safety grid - 2 and the glass cap - 3. The Preyodokhranitelny grid is strengthened on the handle that it could not appear energized in case of short circuit in the boss. For portable lamps use electric current of napryazheyoniy 12 V in especially dangerous places and 36 V in other cases. In the lowering figurative transformers secondary winding is grounded for protection against transition of the highest tension to network of the lowest. Before turning on of the transformer in network its body is reliably grounded.
On the party of the highest tension the transformer has the cord no more than 2 m long tightly soldered to clips of the transformayotor and terminating in the fork. On the party of the lowest tension there are slots under the plug fork of 12 (36) Century. Forks of perenosyony lamps should not approach sockets of network of 220 Century.
Behind the condition of the electrical wiring of portable lamps and the ponizhayoyushchy transformer establish strict control: 1 time in 3 months is measured by insulation resistance of wiring, cords and transformer winding of 12 (36) Century.
During the work the portable lamp is accurately suspended in the suyokhy, not hot place. If work in any rezeryovuar or the equipment, then ustanavliyovat the figurative transformer outside, but not in it.
Work on machines
The zone in the machine (machine) in which mechanisms move is dangerous. At hit of the person in this zone and contact with the moving part proiyozoyt the injury can. The dangerous zone can cover space and out of the machine owing to the possibility of wound shaving, otletayoyushchy particles, because of capture of clothes moving parts. Therefore works on machines are performed with observance of measures of the bezoyopasnost. These measures during the work on turning, boring and frezeryony machines generally have the general character and are as follows.
Before start-up from the machine remove foreign objects. Bring the emulsion for cooling to the rayobochy part of the tool (the cutter, the drill, the mill). The processed part is reliably strengthened that it did not jump out during the obrayobotka. Then gradually on the small skoyorost check durability of fastening of the part and the tool.
During the operating time of the machine it is not allowed to remove barrier, to touch the obrabatyvayeyomy part, to measure it, to clean or smayozyvat the machine, to delete shaving with the hand, to cool cutters, drills with the wet mateyorial, to transmit any objects through the machine. Shaving is deleted with the hook, the blade, the scoop. It is impossible to brake вращающийся the cartridge, the drill the hand for their fastest stop after shutdown of the machine. On the milling machine the obrabatyvayoemy part is given against the movement of teeths, otherwise their breakdown is possible.
For protection of eyes and the person usually nadeyovat safety points. The Proizvodyostvenny clothes should not have the fluttering ends. Hair close the goyolovny attire.
On grinding and tool-grinding machines the rupture of the abrayozivny circle, damage of skin and eyes by the flying-away heated particles of the abrasive and capture of clothes by the rotating parts are dangerous. The grinding wheel is previously tested for durability rotation with the speed exceeding the worker by 1,6 times. On the machine the circle is established by the qualified serviceman and proveyoryat its balancing. According to the document he is convinced that the term of strength test did not expire. For protection against sparks and otletayoyushchy particles the grinding wheel takes cover the casing or is protected with the screen; when opening the screen the electric motor has to be switched-off automatically. The worker has to stand not opposite to the circle, and a little sideways and to work in safety points. Work in case of vibration or disbalance of the circle is inadmissible. In this case work is stopped. Editing of the circle is vypolyonyat by the serviceman, but not the worker.Top