Device, assignment and schemes of connection of switches


What schemes of connection of switches exist?

Now various types of switches there is the huge number. Numerous manufacturing firms of products of this look in eager rivalry offer the richest range for every taste and the purse. As well as sockets, switches consist of three main parts: contacts, block and protective cover.

Выключатели

Placement of the switch depends on that for what room they will serve: in rooms where there is the danger emergence of the fire needs to be established switches from dustproof material.

All of them are made of the same materials, as the socket.

Between sockets and switches there is the difference. If sockets serve for connection to the power supply network (what it was already told earlier about), then switches work according to other scheme. They break off the electrochain. In switches all principle of work is constructed on the throw contact which, changing the situation, disconnects or closes the electric circuit. Unlike the socket, approaches the switch only lived alone, phase.

As well as sockets, switches happen the hidden and outside installation. On it all similarities of these electroadjusting products come to an end.

Switches differ on number of poles (1-, 2-or 3-polar), to execution (protected, hermetic, in metal or in the plastic body).

All switches which offer us firms manufacturers happen the different design (rotary, throw-over, to traction cords etc.). Today on sale there is the widest range of the switches differing in design features and also registration that allows to choose them according to assignment, the room interior, providing at the same time convenience and reliability at operation.

Principles of installation of switches

Схема подключения выключателя

Scheme of connection of the switch.

The installation site of switches depends on their design and in most cases on character of the room. Switches for the general lighting (for example, chandeliers which we got used to see in rooms) establish in available places, is normal on walls of rooms, sideways from doorways at the height from 80 to 110 cm. But if the room does not pass the energy audit, then the switch is installed at height, convenient for you.

A little in a different way the situation with switches which belong to special rooms is. Here it is possible to give several examples. For example, in fire-dangerous rooms installation of switches of dustproof execution is provided, and at outside installations – the closed execution. In explosive rooms switches need to be installed out of them (as it is clear what can occur at the slightest fault).

The switches installed in crude and especially crude rooms are recommended to be taken out there where environmental conditions it is much better. If there is no such opportunity, it is better to use switches with the increased degree of protection of IP 44.

Switch device

Рисунок 1. Конструкция механизмов выключателя

Figure 1. Design of mechanisms of the switch: and – the shaking switch mechanism with the compression spring (1 – the key; 2 – spring; 3 – ball; 4th yoke); – the shaking switch mechanism with the stretching spring (1 – the contact plate; 2 – frame; 3 – bracket; 4 – spring; 5 – basis); in – the cam mechanism of the switch with the flat spring (1 – the handle; 2 – spring; 3 – contact plate).

During the replacing of the switch or acquisition of new it is necessary to pay attention to the mechanism design (keyboard, throw-over, rotary, push-button, cord), to the body design (for the buried or open wiring, for installation on the wire, for embedding in electric devices), to number of poles and the switching chains, to the rated switched current. The greatest application was received by switches with the kinematic schemes given in the drawing below.

In the shaking mechanism with the compression spring (the figure A if to look from left to right) when pressing the pas the key 1 ball 3, squeezing the spring 2, passes through the axis of swing of the yoke 4 then under the influence of the spring slides on the yoke shoulder, throwing it in opposite situation.

In the shaking mechanism with the spring of stretching (figure B) the frame 2 which is mechanically fixed on the key of the switch and pressed to the basis by the 5th spring 4 can shake around the axis, coming into contact with the plate 2 or disconnecting this contact. The spring 4 by means of the part 3 upon transition of the frame 2 through the vertical plane throws the frame from situation "is included" in situation switched off" or back depending on pressing the upper or lower part of the key. The mechanism is used in switches with the flat body with one, two or three large keys in one block. Switches are rather esthetic, convenient for use, are suitable for the buried and open wiring.

The principle of operation of the cam mechanism with the flat spring is visible in the figure B.

Рисунок 2. Механизм выключателей (переключателей) кулачкового (а) и тумблерного (б) типа

Figure 2. Mechanism of switches (switches) of cam and toggle-switch type

In household appliances switches and switches of toggle-switch and cam types (Figure 2) are generally used.

The mechanical wear of contacts and switches happens because of their cupping, abrasion, flow by the voltaic arch arising at the time of the rupture of contacts or vibration of the contact plate after blow of contact about contact. The greatest wear arises at slow cultivation of contacts when the volt arch proceeds considerable time. Therefore at the choice of the new switch it is necessary to prefer the design providing faster cultivation of contacts on the distance which is not sustaining combustion of the arch.

But the most dangerous to the switch is education between contacts of continuous sparking because of the unreliable prileganiye of contacts in the included state. It can be the consequence of insufficient effort of the throw-over spring, oxidation, pollution of contacts. Fault is found on blinking of the lamp in which chain there is the switch. Fault needs to be eliminated immediately, otherwise the switch completely will fail.

The cam mechanism used in blocks on three switches installed on the outside wall of the bathroom of standard multi-storey buildings is the most unsuccessful design which is not providing the fast rupture of the chain, stable and sufficient effort to contact. It is useful to replace such block at the first fault entirely with the block with large keys and the shaking mechanism with the stretching spring.

One of the basic rules in installation of any type of the switch of lighting is that it is always mounted on the phase wire (about it it was already told above). It would seem what difference, if to take and install the switch on the zero conductor, all the same the chain will be opened and light in the lamp will go out. But be not under a delusion, the difference exists.

Схема устройства линии выключателя

Scheme of the device of the line of the switch.

For example, your switch is installed on the zero conductor (vein). The lamp in the lamp fused, and it is required to replace it. It would seem, what is simpler. You click the switch, disconnecting the chain, and quietly you begin to unscrew the fused lamp, in full confidence that there is no tension in the chain. However at the broken-off chain on zero tension in the phase conductor did not get to anywhere.

Accidentally having touched phase contact in the boss, you instantly become zero, that is beats you with current. If there was the contact of TPZh (the conducting vein) with the body of the lamp and it at you in addition was not grounded, such replacement of the bulb can be the last in your life.

Main types of switches

The main and the most often used switches in dwellings, according to the German electrotechnical commission, are four look: rocker switches, two-gang switches, dimmer (svetoregulyator), bill (switches through passage); the switches equipped with sensors on the movement which found broad application recently.

Just the same tools will be necessary for you for mounting of switches, as well as when mounting sockets: set of screw-drivers, side cutting pliers, cleaning and level. And from electrotechnical materials plugs can be necessary for you for connection of veins to collect the scheme in the switching box where all your wires relating to this point of lighting meet (try to use the WAGO plugs as they take slightly less places in adjusting boxes). As well as at installation of sockets, it is necessary to recognize that all conductors at you are laid and brought to adjusting boxes. In a word, it was necessary only to install switches and to collect schemes that at you everything earned.

Rocker switch

One wire which becomes isolated and disconnected in the switch always approaches the switch. Occasionally from outside it seems that wires two. It is rather simple to explain it. The phase conductor forms the loop which falls or rises to the switch. At top the loop is cut, and the ends of the disconnected wire connect to contacts of the switch. The image of this switch was given above.

It is rather simple to carry out connection of this type of switches:

Одноклавишный выключатель

Rocker switch.

  1. Clean about about 10 cm of the wire from the protective cover.
  2. Smooth out the ends of veins to 12 mm.
  3. If you use the three-core wire, then isolate the flavovirent vein by means of the plug or the insulating tape.
  4. Connect the black phase vein to the plug of P or L (it is the entrance). The blue wire should be used as the return for connection of the switch with the lamp, connect it to the plug designated by the arrow (exit). In our photos the return vein is used blue color. To you further not to get confused in the connection box, it is better to wind this vein from two parties, for example, with the brown insulating tape (from the switching and adjusting box). Connection will look as follows.
  5. Insert the switch into the adjusting box. Level and fix by screws which are available for you in the adjusting box, or spreader claws (but here be attentive and do not jam the vein). Double-check installation by means of level.
  6. Establish the decorative frame and the key. Double-check installation by level.
  7. Now it is possible to pass directly to assembly of the scheme in the switching box.
Схема подключения датчика освещенности.

Scheme of connection of the light sensor.

For a start, that to you it was simpler, mark all wires which are there, but make it only after you smooth out all your conductors. For example, on the supply lead put the letter P, on the switch wire – the letter B, on the lamp wire – the letter L. So it will be easier for you, and you will not get confused.

So, in the switching box the ends of veins which are smoothed out from isolation connect as follows: the blue zero wire from the input guard (marked in your box with the letter P) with the blue vein going to the lamp. Connect the black feeding phase wire to the black wire going to the switch. The return blue conductor (in your case is brown) going from the switch, connect to the black vein going to the lamp.

On this image if to look at the left, there is the supply lead, on the right – the wire going to the lamp in the lower part of the box – the wire going to the switch.

Here and all installation. Agree that all process is not so difficult, but demands attentiveness.

The schematical drawing of connection of the line of lighting from the board.

Note. In the drawing two-section AV are used. And the connector on the lamp is used type DCL.

Two-gang switches

Схема подключения двухклавишного выключателя

Scheme of connection of the two-gang switch.

The two-gang switch represents the compact block consisting of two simple switches in one body. It is used if you have the multihorn chandelier, or somewhere on the wall there are several lamps, or you want that in different rooms the light was turned on separately (for example, the bathroom and the toilet).

Here when mounting the main veins becomes three. On one vein the power supply approaches, and on two others the power supply comes out. One key breaks off one line while the second continues to work and vice versa.

Installation of the two-gang switch

Before installation of the two-gang switch it is recommended to pass on this point the four-core wire 4×1,5 to mm2. It is necessary to make it that at you always was in the stock lived alone. It is unknown what at you can occur further. But you can use also the three-core conductor. It is necessary to recognize that at you will pass the four-core wire in the adjusting box.

Схема подключения проходного выключателя

Scheme of connection of the switch through passage.

Exempt the end of the wire from the protective cover approximately to 10 cm. Smooth out tips of veins approximately to 12 mm. Attach the screw terminal to the end of the protective wire or insulate it the insulating tape. Implant the black vein into the plug of the switch of P or L.

Blue and brown wires will serve as the return and to give phase tension from the switch to lamps (the blue vein is here too used, and you can wind it, for example, with The White insulating tape further not to get confused).

Strengthen the switch in the adjusting box. Only then it is possible to establish the decorative frame and both keys.

In the switching box connect the phase black wire of one lamp to the blue return conductor going from the switch (in your case it can be white), and the phase wire of other lamp with brown, going from the switch. Connect with each other, first, all zero wires (blue) and, in - the second, all protective veins.

The scheme of connection of the two-gang switch against the background of the board.
Now it is necessary to consider such switch as the svetoregulyator or the dimmer.

Dimmer

Схема подключения выключателя с диммером

The scheme of connection of the switch with the dimmer.

Svetoregulyator, or the step rheostat (dimmer), allows to change intensity of lighting. Dimmer can be established instead of the available switch without the need for some changes in the electrical wiring.

Its connection is in every respect similar to connection of the normal switch in the chain of simple lighting. You have to choose svetoregulyator type, having taken the power of lighting instruments which force you are going to regulate into account.

The most widely applicable models are expected the maximum power from 300 to 500 W. The scheme of connection of this electrotechnical product is given below.

Also it is necessary to study the table of the line of svetoregulyator of Schneider Electric. In certain cases it will be very useful to you.

The switch automatic machine with the sensor

Here it is about the switch equipped with the sensor of infrared radiation. At the slightest movement it switches off or includes the lighting point for a while which is established by means of adjustment.

The distance at which the sensor fixes the movement can reach 8 m. Depending on models, connection is carried out as well as at simple connection. Generally such switches are installed in halls or deadlock rooms (in storerooms, wardrobe etc.).

It is necessary to consider the last from main types of switches which is used, is the bill (or the switch through passage).

Bill

The bill use for management of one or several points of lighting from two different places. No matter, in what situation there is one switch, the second electrotechnical device it is always possible to include or turn off the light. It is a little more difficult to establish couple of bills, than, for example, two simple.

Connection of bills

In confirmation of the aforesaid the number of schemes which will help to understand the matter will be provided.

Also there is a wish to note one more moment which is quite essential.

At installation of switches always pay attention in what family way keys have to be.

COMMENTS
  1. to dummy joints

    Interesting subject, be so kind as schemes on mail

    To answer
    • Andrey

      To dummy joints at your request sent you schemes to mail.

      To answer
  2. Sergey

    Article 5 + but it would be desirable schemes and the photo is more, the request.

    To answer
    • Andrey

      Sergey many thanks to you. Sent you the enlarged images of photos.

      To answer
  • To add the comment

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